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Full text of "How to show pictures to children"

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THE HOLY NIGHT (DETAIL) 
Dresden Gallery 



HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO 



CHILDREN 



BY 



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ESTELLE M. HTJHLL 



AUTHOR OF THE RIVERSU)E ABT SERIES 




BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO 
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 



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COPYRIGHT, 1914, BY ESTELLE M. HURLL 



• • • • • 

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CAMBKIUGK . MASSACHUSETTS 
U . S . A 



To J. C. H. 

WHOSE HELP, ENCOURAGEMENT AND CRITICISM 
HAVE MADE THE IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE 



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PREFACE 

The first suggestion for this little book came from 
Miss Elizabeth MeCracken, editor of Home Progress, 
whose enthusiasm and sympathy have been a con- 
stant inspiration. In her wide correspondence with 
mothers in regard to the training of children, she dis- 
covered the need of a book giving practical advice 
about pictures for children. A similar report came 
from the libraries, where the same need had long been 
noticed at the consulting-desks. The call from art 
educators and pubhc school teachers has been equally 
urgent. As the custom of hanging pictures in the 
schoolroom has become almost universal, the demand 
has arisen for helpful information in matters of art. I 
am especially grateful to Mr. Henry Turner Bailey, 
editor of the School Arts Magazine, and Mr. James 
Frederick Hopkins, director of the Massachusetts 
Normal Art School, for their words of encouragement 
and counsel. My chapter on the "Use of Pictures in 
the Schoolroom" owes much to valuable advice from 
some experienced teachers. Miss Mary Austin, of the 
New Bedford High School, a pioneer in the use of 
pictures to illustrate historical study, has shown me 
how much can be done in this line. Miss Josephine B. 
Stuart, supervisor of the Primary Schools in New 
Bedford, has cooperated cordially in pointing out the 
many advantages of pictures in the lower grades. To 
her, and to Miss Lucy Bedlow, director of drawing in 



vi PREFACE 

N«w Bedford, I am indebted for the privilege of put- 
ting nu'lliods and theories to a practical test in the 
schoolroom. 

I have had three aims in preparing the following 
ehai)lers: first, to answer some theoretical questions 
concerning the hows, whys, and whatabouts of pic- 
tures; second, to offer practical suggestions to 
mothers and teachers about showing pictures to chil- 
dren; third, to supply information about the most 
desirable picture material for children. The repertory 
of the art dealers is constantly increasing, and the 
time will no doubt soon come when all the important 
pictures of public collections will be available in 
popular reproductions. 

ESTELLE M. HURLL. 
Watertown, Mass., 
May, 1, 1914. 



CONTENTS 

« 

I. INTRODUCTION 

The child's deHght in pictures — The vital questions 
concerning the child's pictures — Permanent effect of good 
and bad art on the taste — Difference between the general 
knowledge of books and that of pictures — The multipli- 
cation of process reproductions — How companionship 
helps the child in picture study — Picture enjoyment 
spoiled by mechanical methods 1 

n. THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 

The child's first pleasure in pictures due to recognition 

— The element of curiosity — The story picture and the 
appeal to the imagination — Subjects to which children 
are indifferent, portraiture and pure landscape — Prepar- 
ing the way for enjoyment of nature pictures — Subjects 
to withhold from children: the vulgar and sensuous, the 
repugnant and horrible — Mistake of forcing uninterest- 
ing subjects upon the child — The child's unaffected joy 

in art 6 

III. HOW THE PICTURE IS MADE 

Advantage to mothers and educators in knowing some- 
thing of the construction of a picture — Ruskin's defini- 
tion of composition — Principality — Favorite composi- 
tional forms of various painters — Repetition ; — Exam- 
ples — Contrast — Examples — Consistency and contin- 
uity — Distinction between the subject and the art of a 
picture — The child's gradual awakening to the beauties 
of composition — Reference books ........ 16 

IV. HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 

The value of pictures in supplying stories to tell children 

— The Aurora — Difference in children in knowing the 
stories of the home pictures — The Children's Picture 
Hour — Story of Landseer's Shoeing — Prince Baltasar 
on his Pony — Raphael's St. Michael and the Dragon — 
Child's share in the story-telling — Picture story-telling 



VI 11 



CONTENTS 



in schools — Millet's Feeding her Birds — Distinction 
between this method and picture reading as pursued in 
some schools — The story of Christ's life told in pictures 

— Christmas story program in pictures and verse ... 26 

V. THE GA.ALE OF PICTURE-POSEVG 

An old game in a new form — Picture-posing fixes pic- 
ture in the memory and helps in self-expression — Prac- 
tical experiments in picture-posing in the schools — Mil- 
let's Sower — Titian's Lavinia — Murillo's Fruit Venders 

— Madame Le Brun and her Daughter — Rubens's Two 
Sons — William M. Chase's Alice — Larger possibilities 
for the game in the home — Picture-posing in amateur 
photography — Desirable qualities in pictures chosen for 
posing — Lists 43 

VI. PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE MOTHER 
FOR THE CHILD'S PICTURE EDUCATION 

Decorations of the nursery — Illustrated books — 
Scrapbooks — Visiting art museums and exhibitions — 
The use of the camera — Home picture games . , . . 56 

MI. THE USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOL- 
ROOM 

Twofold value of pictures in school, for decoration and 
to enrich the courses of study — Pictures in the primary 
school to illustrate the first ideas taught the child, ani- 
mals, family love, labor — Pictures in language work as 
subjects for compositions — Distinction between story- 
telling and description — Pictures in the study of litera- 
ture — Portraits of authors — Illustrations of poems — 
Indirect illustration — Shakespearean collections — The 
evolution of book-making — Illustrations of mythology — 
Pictures in history — Portrait list — Illustrations of 
anei<'nt history — French history — English history — 
American history — Care not to let the utilitarian view 
outweigh the artistic G5 

VIII. ANIMAL PICTURES 

Essential (jualities of good animal art — Animal art 
among the ancients — Animal painting among early Chris- 



CONTENTS ix 

tian artists — Beginning of modern animal painting in 
seventeenth century — Child's favorites, domestic pets, 
then wild animals — Pictures of children with pets — 
Many-sided animal life shown by collation of pictures by 
difiFerent artists: dog, lion, deer, horse, sheep, fox — Cat- 
tle painting in Dutch school — French schools — Land- 
seer and Bonheur — Henrietta Ronner's cats — Photo- 
graphs of animals — Reference books — Lists .... 8-1 

IX. PICTURES OF CHILDREN 

Popularity and value of pictures of children — Late 
historical development of subject — The Madonna sub- 
ject — Contrasting motives in two great Raphaels — 
Charity — Holy Family — Subjects from infancy of 
Jesus — Child angels — Value of child portraiture — 
Rarity in Renaissance and popularity in seventeenth cen- 
tury — Essential qualities of good child portraiture — 
Velasquez — Greuze — Van Dyck — English eighteenth- 
century school — Reynolds and his group — Modern 
examples — Lists — Reference books 97 

X. STORY PICTURES 

Importance of choosing good picture material for story- 
telling — Distinction between building story on a picture 
and drawing story out of a picture — Story pictures 
which never lose interest and those which go out of 
fashion — Murillo's Beggar Boys — Jan Steen's picture of 
child life — Peter de Hooch's domestic little girls — 
Variety of story interests appealing to child in pictures — 
Dutch seventeenth-century school — Chardin — Millet 

— Breton — Pictures of haymaking — Horatio Walker — 
Pictures of sea life — Bradford — Winslow Homer — The 
Fighting Temeraire and the Constitution — Story pic- 
tures illustrating lives of saints, heroes, and martyrs — 
St. Margaret — St. Francis — St. Anthony — St. Chris- 
topher — Maiden saints — Allegory in mural decoration 

— Life of Jesus — Lists 117 

APPENDIX 

Lists of Books for a Working Library in Art Study . . 133 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

CoRREGGio: The Holy Night (Detail) . . . Frontispiece 

Reynolds: Penelope Booths y Facing 8 

Raphael: St. Michael slaying the Dragon ... 22 

Landseer: Shoeing 30 

Velasquez: Prince Baltasar Carlos on his pony . 32 
Fa:mous Pictures as Posed by School Children — 

(1) Le Brun: Madame Le Brun and her Daughter 

(2) Millet: The Sower 46 

Titian: Lavinia 48 

Millet: Feeding her Birds 58 

Correggio: Diana 74 

Michelangelo: The Delphic Sybil ..... 76 
Landseer: A Distinguished Member of the Humane 

Society 86 

Reynolds: Miss Bowles 88 

MuRiLLo: Jesus and John, "The Children of the 

Shell" 100 

Van Dyck: Charles, Prince of Wales .... lOG 

MuRiLLo: The Fruit Venders 118 

Titian: St. Christopher ..,..-.. 126 



HOW TO SHOW PICTURES 
TO CHILDREN 



INTRODUCTION 

In preparing the Riverside Art Series for publica- 
tion some years ago, I first came to a full realization 
of what a picture may mean in a child's life. It is like 
a magic carpet transporting him to distant realms, or 
like Aladdin's lamp bringing him for the time being 
his heart's desire. No figure is too fanciful to express 
the wondrous capacity it has for quickening the 
imagination and giving joy. We can hardly overstate 
its influence upon the mind and character. It is 
sometimes said that this is a mechanical age and ours 
is a mercenary, not an art-loving, people. But this is 
not the testimony which comes from the home and 
school. The children all love pictures, love to look at 
them, love to hear about them, love to possess them. 
And we, who have the shaping of their youthful 
tastes, are eager to guide them aright. We want to 
consider what pictures our children like best, and 
why; what pictures we want them to like, and why; 
how we can cultivate their taste for the best art, and 
where we can find the material. Such questions con- 
cern the deep issues of life. If the child's single 
moment of pleasure were all that was to be con- 



ft HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

sidcred, the matter would be simple enough. The 
very fact that the imagination needs so little to set 
it going, and supplies so many deficiencies, makes his 
elders a bit careless about the pictures they give him. 
If a poor thing affords him as much enjoyment as a 
masterpiece, why bother to get anything better? As 
well give him a comic supplement as a Raphaers 
Madonna, and trouble no more about it. But the 
faithful educator is concerned with the child's future, 
and the object of all culture is rounded development. 
Everything in the child's environment is chosen for 
this end, and the pictures should be among the most 
carefully selected of all his surrounding influences. 

It is an almost cruel fact of psychology that a lack 
of youthful training can never be fully made up in 
after years. We see the inexorable law illustrated in 
the lives of hundreds of people about us, in manners, 
speech, and taste. So if children are surrounded by 
sentimental or meretricious pictures, they are seri- 
ously handicapped in after life in their susceptibility 
to noble art. On the other hand, the young mind fed 
only on the best pictures will by and by turn natu- 
rally to the good and reject the inferior. If the taste 
is cultivated in the impressionable years, it will 
become as sensitive to aesthetic impressions as a deli- 
cately adjusted instrument to atmospheric condi- 
tions. The theory is clear enough, but there have 
been many difficulties in its practical application. 
For obvious reasons graphic art is not nearly so 
widely understood or appreciated as literature. It is 
over four centuries since the printing press brought 



INTRODUCTION 8 

books into general circulation, but it is less than half 
a century since photography brought good pictures 
within general reach. It is no wonder, then, that 
many who are well versed in reading are still more or 
less ignorant of art. Some of us whose childhood fell 
in the seventies were brought up among well-filled 
bookshelves, while the home pictures were few in 
number and crude in quality. 

The last twenty-five years have seen a complete 
revolution in this matter. The home and the school 
may now be decorated with the same art treasures 
that millionaires enjoy, and all through the magic of 
process reproduction. The photographer has carried 
his camera into every corner of the earth and has 
photographed all the wonders of nature and archi- 
tecture. Without setting foot out of doors we may 
travel all around the world in imagination by cover- 
ing our walls with photographic views. Even more 
remarkable is the photographic work done in all the 
great galleries of painting and sculpture, reproducing 
for us the world's masterpieces. The Greek marbles 
of the Vatican and the British Museum, and the 
works of Michelangelo, may now be as familiar to the 
children of America as they once were to the children 
of Athens and of Florence. The paintings of Raphael 
and Titian, of Holbein and Durer, of Rembrandt and 
Frans Hals, of Rubens and Van Dyck, of Velasquez 
and Murillo, of Reynolds and Gainsborough, of 
Corot and Millet, of a multitude of contemporary 
painters, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Scandi- 
navian, English, and American, are all within our 



4' 



4 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

reach, if we will put forth our hands to take them. 
Besides photographic prints, there are all sorts of so- 
called process pictures, photogravures, half-tones, 
and so on, ranging in price from several dollars to one 
cent each. The reproductions are in delicately 
shaded grays and browns, some even in facsimile 
colors, interpreting the original beauty of the pictures 
with wonderful accuracy. With such treasures at our 
command, the coming generation ought to become as 
familiar with good pictures as with good books, and 
should be able to discriminate as correctly in artistic 
as in literary matters. Educators and parents are 
striving towards this end. 

A child's pleasure in a picture is greatly increased 
by the sympathetic, companionship of an older per- 
son. Though his imagination is keener than his 
elder's, his powers of observation are presumably less 
developed. His natural impatience to turn the page 
of a book, or hurry on to the next room of a gallery, 
can be restrained by pointing out the details of 
the composition. In forming habits of observation, 
the memory is trained to retain distinct images of the 
pictures worth knowing. It is surprising how vague 
our ideas are of many supposedly famihar things. 
The Sistine Madonna, for instance, is probably one of 
the best known pictures in the world, but if one were 
called upon to describe it fully, how many recall the 
foreshortened hand of the Pope, the crossed legs of the 
Child, the Virgin's })are feet, and other similar details? 
A clear memory image of a masterpiece is a sort of 
touchstone to carry about as a test for other pictures. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

The first rule in all our dealings with children is not 
to talk down to them, and this is especially true in 
selecting their pictures. Nothing is too good for 
them. Some pictures may treat subjects beyond a 
child's comprehension, but none are beyond him in 
artistic excellence. The best children's pictures were 
not made for children at all. Only the illustrators of 
children's books have consciously addressed a juve- 
nile audience. The great masters worked in obedience 
to their own heavenly vision, and it is one of the tests 
of success when a picture appeals equally to all ages 
and all sorts and conditions. 

Pictures are primarily intended for pure aesthetic 
joy, and it is a thousand pities to assume a didactic 
tone in showing them to children. Let them be, like 
the stories we tell, among their dearest delights. 
Above all things else we must avoid mechanical 
methods of instruction as the most deadly blight to 
the imagination. We cannot be too careful lest the 
child's perception be dulled by prosaic influences, or 
his taste vitiated by unworthy material. For the 
imagination is the key by which we unlock the doors 
of beauty. While the divine gift is still unspoiled, the 
child is most keenly alive to the joys of life. 



II 

THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 

In selecting pictures for children we must take the 
child's point of view. He likes a picture for what it 
shows him. His interest is in the subject, not in the 
art. He does not know or care whether it is beautiful, 
or cleverly treated, rare or famous or what not. He 
wants to know what it is about. If it represents 
something which pleases him, that is enough. He has 
reasons of his own for his preferences, apparently 
growing out of very simple psychological principles. 
It is for us to study and gratify these childish prefer- 
ences, making them a stepping-stone for the higher 
appreciation of art. 

I recently asked a young mother what pictures her 
little boy likes best. " Animals," was the prompt reply. 
Glancing around the nursery, I saw a perfect men- 
agerie of toys: horses, dogs, cats, sheep, etc., in every 
imaginable material from rubber and china to the 
most realistic imitations in skin and fur. The father 
liad begun in the child's infancy to bring home toys of 
this sort, and it was a natural transition from toy to 
picture. A baby girl's first toy is commonly the doll, 
and from this the natural transition is to pictures of 
l)abies. If daddy happens to be fond of yachting, 
the boy's first toys are likely to be boats, and from 
these he is ready for shipping scenes. If mother has 



THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 7 

a fad for gardening, the little girl, brought up among 
flowers, will naturally like pictures of flowers. Both 
boys and girls spontaneously point out other chil- 
dren as soon as they begin to "take notice." Natu- 
rally enough, then, the pictures of children secure 
their immediate response. In short, the child's 
first pleasure in pictures seems to consist largely in 
the principle of recognition. He is proud and pleased 
to be able to identify an object. You arouse his 
interest in a picture by pointing out the familiar 
features. The other day I dropped a bank-book 
which opened on a small woodcut of the "Institution 
for Savings," a very uninteresting edifice. My four- 
year-old nephew fell upon it eagerly. "See the 
cunning house," he exclaimed, gazing at it with the 
rapture of Ruskin before the cathedral of Amiens. 
This plainly was the sheer joy of recognizing a 
familiar thing in miniature. 

The child's first favorites, then, in the way of 
pictures, are from the subjects most familiar to him 
in his toys and surroundings. These are easy to 
supply, and should be in the best possible form, artis- 
tically and mechanically. They should represent 
large, plain, simple objects, making what educators 
call a "unit." Many designs intended for children 
are made in a decorative style to please the illustra- 
tor, and are not at all suitable for the young. Intri- 
cacy of line is confusing to the child's eye. A figure 
must emerge well from the background to be clearly 
distinguished. Impressionism is not for children. 
At first the pictured object is not so satisfying as the 



8 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

real thing, because it cannot be handled. The pic- 
tured baby cannot be hugged, nor the pictured 
animal dragged about the nursery floor. In the course 
of time, however, pictures make a place of their own 
in the child's afi'ections. They are perhaps the most 
restful of all his playthings. Certainly they afford his 
most (juiet amusement ■ — much to the mother's relief. 

Next to the principle of recognition in the child's 
picture experience comes the element of curiosity. 
He is eternally asking questions and trying to in- 
crease his stock of ideas. Pictures like all other 
objects W'ill contribute to this end. From pictures 
of domestic pets so easily identified, he passes with 
awe and curiosity to pictures of wild animals which 
have never come into his ken: elephants, camels, and 
lions; and from these again to mythical beasts like 
the dragon. From pictures of houses and churches, 
such as he sees daily, he turns with inquiring eyes to 
views of splendid public buildings such as he has 
never known. From children of his own class, in 
dress and appearance like his ow^n, he advances to the 
child life of other periods and lands. In these cases 
the new thing is enough like the old to seem halfway 
familiar, and still so unfamiliar as to stimulate new 
interest. The child must begin with what he can 
understand, but his thirst for knowledge gives him a 
zest for something beyond, not so far beyond, how- 
ever, that it is in outer darkness. The universal rule 
of i)rogress is by one step at a time. 

It is singular how the opposite pleasures of recog- 
nition and curiosity alternate and balance each other 




Mansell, Photo. 



Johu Au'lrrw \ >..n, ^o. 



PENELOPE BOOTHBY 



I 



THE 
(PUBLIC 



TJLDEN Foil 



THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 9 

in a child's likes and dislikes. All boys and girls have 
a strong conservative element in their make-up, the 
girl clinging tenaciously to her battered old dolls, and 
the boy loyal to his dismembered dogs and horses. 
At the same time they are always teasing for some 
new toy or amusement. So with pictures. At times 
they seem interested only in something familiar, and 
again they utterly refuse to look at the "tiresome 
old" picture book they "know by heart." I have a 
box of miscellaneous prints which tests the caliber 
of many an unsuspecting little visitor. While I am 
busy at my desk, this box is explored, and the dis- 
coverer brings me the special treasures selected. I 
remember one little girl whose amusement consisted 
in counting out the pictures she herself happened to 
have. Another surprised me very much by finding 
a few old photographs I had entirely forgotten. They 
were Nativity subjects by some early Italian painters, 
quite archaic in style and supposedly unattractive to 
a child. But in this case they were the reminder of a 
happy hour in the schoolroom, and the child poured 
forth to me the story of the manger as she had heard 
it from her teacher. All the charming modern chil- 
dren's pictures counted for nothing beside these 
which suggested a familiar train of thought. Children 
of a different temperament choose the striking and 
unusual things to have them explained. "What is 
the giant [St. Christopher] going to do with the baby 
on his shoulder .?" " W^hy does a little boy [Prince 
Charles] wear a lace bonnet, or a little girl [Penelope 
Bootliby] lace mittens?" 



10 now TO snow PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

As soon as the child is capable of grasping more 
than Olio object at a time, or, in other words, of 
relating the various elements of a composition, he 
progresses from the single object, or unit, to the 
story picture. His pleasure is now of a higher order 
than mere recognition or curiosity: it is the awak- 
ening of the imagination. This faculty once aroused 
needs only the right touch to transport him into a 
paradise of joy. The good story picture is the great 
desideratum. This may be illustrative of a text or 
anecdotic in itself. In either case his lively fancy 
finds plenty of exercise in reading the story into the 
picture or the picture into the story. The story 
subjects he likes best at first are those drawn from 
his own little world, but he soon grows to new inter- 
ests. As kindergartners so well understand, children 
enjoy seeing things done, and those pictures are ever 
popular which portray the primitive tasks of life 
like spinning, knitting, sewing, churning butter and 
feeding hens, sowing the seed and gathering the har- 
vest. Other subjects follow in due order, and go far 
towards widening the horizon of the child's mind. 

There are certain classes of subjects to which the 
child remains long indifferent. He has no use for 
adult portraits, generally speaking, unless they are 
connected with some story. They are all very well 
to vary the monotony of a history lesson, but taken 
by themselves, they are dull and uninteresting. This 
is natural enough. What normal, wide-awake child 
enjoys sitting in a company of silent grown-ups.^ 

Landscape art pure and simple does not interest 



THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE ll 

the average child to any extent. The love of nature 
in early years is due in a measure to the exhilarating 
effect of air and sunshine. The great out-of-doors is a 
glorious playground in which the child delights to 
sport like any other healthy young animal. As his 
mind develops, the latent aesthetic impulses are 
awakened. He rejoices in the "shout of color to glad 
color," and his heart leaps up at the sight of the rain- 
bow in the sky. Though beauty must make its first 
appeal to the senses, it finds its way at last to the 
inner spirit, quickening the imagination, and creating 
a joy which is quite of its own kind. We can never 
draw a hard-and-fast line between the sense experi- 
ence and the underlying sesthetic joy, but we come to 
recognize the signs of the deepening experience in 
our children's maturer years. In the mean time we 
can hardly expect a pictured out-of-doors to produce 
the same effect that the world of nature does on the 
child. It lacks the stimulating infiuence of sun and 
air. Nature pictures like nature poetry must bide 
their time. We need not be discouraged if our chil- 
dren fail to respond to Corot and Inness, but we can 
please them best by giving them photographs of the 
woods and meadows associated with their own sum- 
mer outings. They usually respond more quickly to 
actual views of natural scenery than to ideal land- 
scape. Subjects representing the unusual and striking 
in nature, like Niagara Falls and the majestic peaks 
of the Alps, also arouse their interest. Another open- 
ing wedge to the appreciation of pure landscape art is 
the animal picture with landscape setting, like some 



12 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

of the Dutch or French cattle subjects. It has been a 
capital idea in some schoolroom decorations to 
arrange a series of such subjects to follow the se- 
quence of the seasons. This correlation of landscape 
art and nature study makes a pleasant introduction 
to an otherwise uninteresting subject. In schools 
where pupils are taught to recognize the forms of 
trees, I am told that landscape pictures take on a 
peculiar interest if they contain well-defined tree 
examples. 

Besides the subjects which the children do not 
themselves like are those which we do not want them 
to like. The vulgar and the sensuous should, of 
course, be eliminated from their repertory. The 
imagination should be fed only on the pure and clean. 
The beauty of the human figure should be taught 
chiefly through the ideal forms of great sculpture. 
The child familiarized with the austere and chaste 
nobility of the Greek gods will be embarrassed by no 
impure suggestions. The repugnant and the horrible 
should likewise he kept from children. We pride 
ourselves that we have traveled a long way from the 
mediaeval period when churches were decorated with 
the martyrdom of saints and the last sufferings of the 
Saviour. In their place we have moving-picture 
shows which display all the details of disaster and 
crime as if actually taking place before our eyes. 
rhihintliropists are trying to save the children from 
patronizing these places, and we must avoid a similar 
element in illustrated newspapers and magazines and 
in prints. If a child is attracted by such things, he 



THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 13 

shows a morbid taste which should be repressed. If 
he shrinks from them, he should be carefully guarded 
from anything which will give a shock to his sensitive 
nature. I recently heard of a little boy of five who 
was convulsed with grief over the fate of a picture 
kitten — left alone on a rock in a stormy sea. A 
friend of mine once confessed to me that she had 
never quite recovered from the horror of a vivid 
picture of the Deluge shown to her in her childhood. 

The grotesque often has a certain comic element in 
it which has its value in amusing the child, but the 
line is sometimes hard to draw between the grotesque 
and the gruesome. I have seen illustrated books of 
fairy tales in which the ogre who looks so funny to 
the grown-ups is a very alarming creature to the 
child. The children who are terrified by the circus 
clown — and there are not a few such — are of 
the kind whose pictures must be carefully chosen. 

Pictures which are outside a child's range of inter- 
est should certainly not be forced upon him. If he is 
overdosed by zealous parents and teachers with sub- 
jects beyond his comprehension, or not appealing to 
his preferences, he may revolt altogether. Whatever 
a child likes to hear about, or read about, or look at 
in real life, that he enjoys in a picture. We must 
look, then, for the material which connects naturally 
with the average child's experience, and we should 
provide it in sufficient variety. Some of us recall 
with amusement a period in the nineties when the 
schools "discovered" the Madonna, so to speak, 
and the children were treated to the subject till they 



14 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

were tired. A little girl I knew, coming home to 
lunch one day to find a dish she especially disliked, 
exclaimed wearily, *'If there's anything I hate it's 
turkey soup and Madonnas." Boys and girls have 
different tastes, corresponding to their different 
interests. On the whole, however, we may be fairly 
sure that all children will like pictures of animals, 
pictures of child life, and pictures with story interest. 
Under these headings I have collected a quantity of 
available subjects for home and school use. 

In our collecting we must never forget to choose 
good art. Though the child himself finds his chief 
delight in what the picture is about, we must take 
pains to note how it is made. We remember that it 
is not for to-day merely, but for the future, that we 
are building. Let the first pictures be such as will 
last a lifetime, so that the man may never be ashamed 
of the treasures of his boyhood, enjoying them in 
increasing measure as he develops the higher appreci- 
ation of art. 

The child's enjoyment of pictures is unhampered 
by any prejudices or preconceived ideas. There is a 
certain advantage in having nothing to unlearn. 
The motives which actuate the adult do not affect 
him at all. It means nothing to him that a picture 
is by Raphael or Titian, as he has never heard of 
these worthies. When his love of beauty is aroused, 
it is an unaffected joy. We must never force our own 
tastes and opinions upon him. It is better to admire 
the wrong thing sincerely than the right thing insin- 
cerely. As the child learns more about the principles 



THE CHILD AND THE PICTURE 15 

of art and craftsmanship, the critical faculties enter 
into his experience and enrich his pleasure. At a 
certain stage of his development we can help the 
child to understand and appreciate how the picture 
is made, as I try to explain in the next chapter. The 
whole tale of our art enjoyment is a threefold one: 
the perfect picture satisfies the senses, stimulates 
the critical faculties, and inspires the spiritual imag- 
ination. The body, mind, and spirit are all involved. 
The keener the senses, the more susceptible the imag- 
ination and the more extensive the technical knowl- 
edge, the greater will be the capacity to enjoy. The 
most encouraging thing about training the aesthetic 
sense is that if started right, and properly nourished, 
it will come to sure fruition. 



Ill 



HOW THE PICTURE IS MADE 

If you are giving a child a cake, it adds nothing to 
his enjoyment to tell him that it came from an expen- 
sive caterer, that it contains certain ingredients and 
was made by certain rules, or that it will contribute 
to his nourishment. If it is good, he eats it and wants 
more, and your object is accomplished. The careful 
mother, however, must be sure that the cake comes 
from a trustworthy source, and is composed of whole- 
some materials, and if she is of the domestic sort, she 
knows i)retty nearly how it was made. So in the 
matter of pictures: one need not worry the child by 
didactic explanations in regard to the artist or his 
art, converting his pleasure into a "lesson." Yet all 
that teacher and mother can learn about the making 
of the picture will enable them the better to choose 
those pictures which will foster the child's love of art. 
The critical knowledge, which increases so much our 
own aesthetic enjoyment, may little by little be 
imparted to the child as occasion offers. The more 
unconsciously he absorbs such instruction, the better. 
The art of teaching at its highest point is an art of 
concealing art. 

How, then, is a work of art produced.? By a mere 
haphazard process? Assuredly not. In the first place, 
the mere mechanical achievement of reproducing a 



HOW THE PICTURE IS ]\L\DE 17 

drawing or painting in the form of a print is a marvel. 
We accept this as a matter of course, as we do ali 
other manufactured articles. In this age of industrial 
miracles, we have no time to praise one above another. 
Behind the machinery is the artist with his simple tools, 
pencil, brush, and color. Here is the wizard perform- 
ance by which a few dexterous strokes will transform 
a blank sheet into a living creature, or fill vacancy 
with a fairy world. Outwardly the success of his 
work depends upon his craftsmanship. He must be 
master of a thousand technical details. He must 
know anatomy, perspective, the values of light and 
shade, modeling, drawing, the mixing of colors, and 
whatever else has to do with the manipulation of the 
raw materials. Of all that makes up the so-called 
technique of art the ordinary layman has little ink- 
ling. Only one who has tried his own hand at it has 
any notion that what looks so easy is really so hard. 
And just as a few elementary lessons in the use of any 
musical instrument give the amateur some faint idea 
of the skill represented in a great orchestra, so the 
drawing lessons of the public school train the eye to 
discriminate between fine and faulty draughtsman- 
ship. It is a fashion in certain social circles to fre- 
quent the haunts of artists and pick up some of the 
studio vernacular, but it is a question how far this 
goes tow^ards raising art standards. What will really 
help us to a more intelligent appreciation of a picture 
is to understand its structure. For every noble work 
of art is based on principles as well defined as the 
laws of nature, — principles which are common to all 



18 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

the branches of the fine arts: painting, sculpture, po- 
etry, music, and architecture. It is true that in the 
highest creative work, the artist acts as by inspira- 
tion, without conscious analysis. But when his work is 
clone, it is tested by its conformity to certain laws of 
composition. The symmetry of a tree seems like a 
happy accident, but as a matter of fact there are 
phyllotactic laws governing the position of every 
branch. The stars seem scattered over the sky as 
carelessly as the leaves on a tree, yet each one is a 
world revolving in a fixed orbit by immutable laws. 
Nothing "happens" either in nature or art. 

"Composition means literally and simply putting 
things together so as to make one thing out of them, 
the nature and goodness of which they all have a 
share in producing." This is Ruskin's definition in 
the Elements of Drawing ^ and I have never found a 
better one. It means that in a true art composition 
there is a reason for everything. Not a single line or 
spot of color is superfluous or meaningless. Every 
touch contributes to the whole effect. The architect, 
sculptor, painter, musician, and poet shape their 
materials into a complete and perfect oneness — a 
unity. Tlie methods of reducing variety to unity 
constitute the laws of composition. 

'Vo begin with, a picture contains some one feature 
to which all others are subordinate. This is Princi- 
pahty, and by this law every means should be taken 
to fix attention upon the supreme point of interest. 
In some cases the scheme of color brings the impor- 
tant element into prominence. Again the method of 



HOW THE PICTURE IS MADE 19 

lighting is the artist's device for emphasizing his 
leading idea. In a portrait by Rembrandt the won- 
derful high light in the face illumines the very soul of 
the sitter, and is intensified by the heavy shadows 
from which it emerges. In most pictures the principal 
features are shown by the use of a diagram or frame- 
work, so to speak, on which the linear composition is 
built. One can trace the structural form by connect- 
ing the strongest lines of the picture. Notice, for 
instance, how carefully the four figures are placed in 
Landseer's Shoeing. On the left side the three heads 
— the horse's, the donkey's, and the dog's — are all 
in line. On the right, the blacksmith stands so that 
his entire figure will come compactly within the 
diagram. 

One of the commonest compositional forms is the 
pyramid, which was a favorite device with the Italian 
masters, especially Raphael. Some of liis Madonna 
pictures and Holy Families, referred to in my lists, 
are in this style. Murillo used this form a great 
deal in arranging his groups, the Children of the Shell 
being an excellent example. The lamb is lying in such 
a position that a line drawn from the Christ-child's 
head to the left corner forms one oblique side of the 
pyramid, and the diagram is completed on the other 
side by a line running along the back of the kneeling 
St. John. The two Fruit Venders also lean towards 
each other in attitudes which bring the figures within 
a pyramidal outline. Sir Joshua Reynolds, who, like 
Murillo, derived much from the Italians, arranged 
many portraits in pyramidal style. Miss Bowles is an 



20 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

instance, the spreading dress on one side and the 
spaniel on the other helping to produce the desired 
otli'ct. Many of Millet's peasant figures, like the 
Milkmaid, the Man with the Hoe, and the Woman 
Churning, are posed in a way to suggest the pyrami- 
dal outline. In all these cases, of course, the apex 
of the pyramid is the focal point of the picture, the 
point the painter wishes you to see. 

Some beautiful elliptical designs are illustrated in 
compositions by Botticelli, the Lippi, and Michel- 
angelo. The Delphic Sibyl of the Sistine Chapel 
ceiling is drawn in this form. Trace the curve de- 
scribed by her scroll and continue it along the edge of 
her robe to form an arched line on the left side. This 
meets the complementary curve of her back and 
makes a complete ellipse. Even more wonderful, 
perhaps, is the Italian tondo, or circular design, so 
perfectly consummated in Botticelli's Incoronata 
and Raphael's Chair Madonna. Here the lines flow 
around in concentric circles, producing a charming 
effect which has been likened to the clustering petals 
of a rose. Titian had a way of bisecting his space 
with a diagonal line, as in the Pesaro Madonna, 
where the draperies fall in a sort of cascade across 
I ho j)ieture. The portrait of Lavinia is designed in 
the same way, the foundation line being the long 
curve running diagonally across the canvas from 
iij)p(T left to lower right corner. Van Dyck and 
l{iil)CTis, who were Titian adorers, imitated this 
mt^tliod with great success. Van Dyck's St. Martin 
dividing his Cloak with a Beggar is constructed in 



HOW THE PICTURE IS IVIADE 21 

this way, and Rubens's Descent from the Cross is a 
masterly example of the same idea. These academic 
methods of older artists have become a standard for 
later art, though with less geometrical exactness. 
The aim in every case is to bring one object before 
the eye as the leading idea of the picture. In describ- 
ing a picture to one who has not seen it, or in showing 
a picture to a child, we are unconsciously guided by 
this law of Principality in picking out the most 
important feature of the picture at the first glance. 

Next to Principality let us note the law of composi- 
tion most pleasing to the child: Repetition. No one 
who reads or tells stories to children can fail to 
observe the gurgle of delight which greets the recur- 
rence of some repeated line. How eagerly the little 
listener waits for the catch phrase. The oldest story- 
tellers made abundant use of this principle, as we see 
in the Old Testament literature, and it is the most 
captivating quality in popular verse and song. 

Repetition is the simplest element in decorative 
design. One of the child's never -failing amusements 
is to pick out the repetitive feature in the rugs and 
wall hangings. The first lessons in designing are 
based on this principle, and teachers often use the 
Doge's Palace in Venice to illustrate the beauty of 
this device. Repetition occurs in a picture in many 
forms : in color, mass, or line. We see it illustrated in 
a very simple way in Landseer's composition of the 
Newfoundland Dog where the cloud forms repeat 
the ripples in the water. A clever example of Repe- 
tition is found in the favorite school picture of Prince 



22 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Baltasar on his pony (Velasquez). How charmingly 
the boy's scarf and sash, and even his baton, empha- 
size the diagonal line described by the pony's spirited 
attitude. Without any suspicion of the reason, the 
child catches the buoyant sense of the forward motion 
expressed in the whole picture. Precisely the same 
idea is carried out in Guido Renins Aurora in a suc- 
cession of parallel curves across the composition. 
Long before either of these pictures was painted, 
however, Raphael had set the example in St. Michael 
and the Dragon. In this composition the uplifted 
spear of the warrior angel makes a line parallel with 
that running the length of his right side and along 
the right leg, while his sword swings back in a line 
parallel with the left leg. These devices add to the 
spirited efYect of the attitude. 

Repetition is offset, compositionally speaking, by 
Contrast. This principle, as the word implies, means 
a direct opposition of elements, light to dark, the 
perpendicular to the horizontal, the convex to the 
concave, etc. The main diagonal line of St. Michael 
and the Dragon (running from upper left to lower 
right) is offset by the diagonals running directly 
across them. These contrasting lines may be traced, 
one across the left arm and left wing of the angel, and 
another across the outstretched arms of the prostrate 
victim. Tn exactly the same way the curve of Lavin- 
ia*s u})lifted arm cuts across the curve of her swaying 
body and Diana's right arm cuts the long line extend- 
in-,' from hiT k'ft hand to her right foot. The drawing 
of Millet's Sower is on a similar plan. The predomi- 




From carbon print by Braun, Clement 4 Co. 

ST. MICHAEL SLAYING THE DRAGON 

The Lotcvre, Paris 



PUBLIC I 



TJLL 



HOW THE PICTURE IS MADE 23 

nant curve of the Aurora is similarly counterbalanced 
by a series of shorter lines curving in the opposite 
direction. 

Contrast comes into effective play where a good 
many figures are brought together: youth offset by 
age, gayety by seriousness, motion by repose. The 
angelic beauty of Raphael's St. Michael is contrasted 
with the ugliness of Satan; the rugged strength of St. 
Christopher by the infantine face of the Christ-child; 
the aristocratic sleekness of the horse in Landseer's 
Shoeing by the shaggy coat of the plebeian donkey. 
Such devices, however, must not be too pronounced. 
They are held in check by the laws of Consistency 
and Continuity. In other words, the elements of a 
good composition are homogeneous, and hold to- 
gether well, so to speak. All the color should conform 
harmoniously with the one scheme and the flow of 
line should be complete and satisfying. 

It is obvious that the art of a picture may be con- 
sidered quite apart from the subject, and that we 
may admire the composition as such, either in color 
or line, whether the subject is "pretty" or not, and 
whether w^e like or dislike the theme. The word "art" 
is not a synonym for prettiness or sentimentality, 
though the popular taste so often calls for these 
qualities. Some of the noblest pictures contain 
figures w^hich are far from "pretty" in the general 
acceptance of that term, like Millet's Milkmaid, or 
Water Carrier, or the Man with the Hoe. Van Eyck's 
famous portrait of the Man with the Pink represents 
an almost ludicrously ugly subject treated with con- 



24 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

suininate artistry. Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson, 
which repels the average person, is one of the world's 
niastori)ieces. It is often with pictures, as with 
novels, whose cleverness we are bound to admit, but 
whose themes are unpleasant or objectionable. A 
Drunken Bacchanal by Rubens may delight us for its 
color, or a Tavern Brawl by Teniers or Brouwer 
attract us for its life and action, however disgusting 
we may think the subject. The distinction should be 
kept clearly in mind between subject and art. Never- 
theless, the perfect picture is that w^hich unites noble 
ideals with strong craftsmanship. Such should be the 
art we set before our children. 

No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down about the 
age at which the child may be taught the artistic 
ciualities of a picture, so much depends upon the 
natural aptitude. Generally speaking, children are 
curious to hear how things are made. They like to 
see the wheels go round, and they are pleased to learn 
that even pictures have secrets. Repetition and 
Contrast are the most readily noticed of all qualities. 
Often without any hint from an elder the child points 
out in a picture one, two, three spots of red, or a 
curved line here and another like it there. The 
puj)il who is fond of drawing may very likely ask 
questions which will open the way naturally to simple 
explanations. He is quick to see how his lessons in 
design may be applied to the structure of a picture. 

I knew a boy of fourteen who became much inter- 
ested ill Raphael's compositions as a help in his 
camera work. He had attended an art lecture only 



HOW THE PICTURE IS MADE 25 

for the fun of hearing his sister speak in pubHc, but 
when the diagrams of the various Madonna groups 
were explained, he observed at once their appHcation 
to the arrangement of figures in photographs. An 
intelHgent lad who has a definite motive like this can 
learn a great deal by placing tracing-paper over the 
photograph of a good composition, and outlining in 
pencil the strongest lines. I am confident that ingen- 
ious mothers and teachers can make a great deal of 
picture-posing or tableaux to show the children how 
much better the effect is when the figures are properly 
related. The boy taking the exact pose of Millet's 
Sower, and the girl posing a la Lavinia must get some 
notion of the rhythmic flow of line in these master- 
pieces. Another chapter is given to the full explana- 
tion of this subject. 

When the botanist analyzes a flower he must needs 
leave it in fragments, but the process once over, he 
ever after remembers the blossom in its entirety. 
The critical analysis of a picture would be a sad 
process if it were the end and object of our interest. 
Whatever we see in the beauty of its make-up should 
help us to enjoy it better as a whole. For the true 
work of art, like one of God's flowers, is made first 
and foremost to delight the heart of man. 

Reference Books: — 

M. S. Emery. How to Enjoy Pictures. 

John C. Van Dyke. Art for Art' s Sake. 

Charles H. Caffin. Guide to the Study of Pictures. 

John Ruskin. Elements of Drawing. 

Arthur W. Dow. Composition. 

George Lansing Rayjviond. The Genesis of Art Form. 



IV 

HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 

A child's insatiable thirst for stories is one of the 
demands which every mother has to meet as best she 
may. The story-teller's gift is a special endowment 
not voiiclisafed to many. The most of us have to 
cultivate it assiduously for the benefit of the little 
ones. We rack our brains for new ideas, or look 
through many books in search of interesting subjects. 
Even when we have a good story to tell, we begin 
haltingly, failing in the power to express ourselves 
fluently, and unable to produce a vivid impression. 
Now here is where a certain class of pictures can help 
us out amazingly. The picture which illustrates a 
dramatic situation, in other words, the anecdotic or 
story picture, has undreamed-of possibilities in the 
way of story entertainment. It furnishes us a subject 
and puts the story into our very mouths, so to speak. 
All children take naturally to pictures, and we secure 
their attention at once when we produce a print or 
open an illustrated book. Usually, however, their 
interest quickly flags, unless guided by an older com- 
panion. The young mind, untrained to concentra- 
tion, flits from subject to subject, as a butterfly from 
one blossom to another. But let the mother begin to 
talk about the ])icture, and the child fixes eager eyes 
upon it, and follows every word with breathless atten- 



HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 27 

tion. And "talking about" a picture is simply letting 
the picture talk, provided, of course, that it is the 
right sort of picture. The artist does all the work: 
one has only to follow his thought. No descriptive 
phrases are needed: the objects describe themselves. 
The process of unfolding the story becomes more and 
more fascinating as we go on, and the teacher usually 
learns more than the pupil. 

Suppose the child comes with the familiar request 
at a moment when the mother is too weary for any 
new invention. Her eyes fall upon Guido Reni's 
Aurora hanging over the mantelpiece. It is one of the 
colored reproductions so many people bring home 
from abroad and which our large art stores now sell. 
Here is a story ready to hand. She begins in this wise: 
Every morning the sun god Apollo starts forth on a 
journey across the sky. Aurora gives him the signal 
and leads the way, floating in the air and scattering 
roses on the sleeping world which lies far below. 
Apollo sits in his chariot and guides his horses four 
abreast, as they dash along so swiftly that the wind 
fills out his fluttering garments and blows back his 
golden curls. The little winged love god Cupid flies 
through the air just over the team carrying his flam- 
ing torch, for wherever the sun shines, love and joy 
are sure to follow. Apollo is accompanied by all the 
hours which fill the day, each one beautiful, no two 
alike, and every one bringing the right time for 
some special duty or pleasure. First come the maid- 
ens of the morning in the delicate colors of early day- 
light, their faces full of anticipation. Then follow the 



28 now TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

glowing noontide hours in warm colors, when Hfe and 
strength are in their fullness, and then the waning 
hours of afternoon in pale tints and with pensive 
faces. All are linked hand in hand, keeping perfect 
step, none missing and none delaying. So the proces- 
sion moves along, and presently the world awakens 
to welcome the Dawn, and to follow the course of the 
chariot across the sky. If you look out of the window 
and gaze up towards the sun, you may see how far 
Apollo has gone on his way, and you know that the 
horses are still speeding onward that every hour may 
have its turn in blessing the world. 

A very simple world-old tale is this, which you 
might never have thought of putting in this way if 
the Italian painter had not composed it for you. 

In homes which are decorated with good works of 
art the natural beginning is with the subjects on the 
walls. When the children come to love the pictures 
with which they are surrounded, they will hold fast 
to these ideals all their lives. The "silent influence" 
of good art is all very well in its way, but it will be 
greatly strengthened by a little judicious story- 
telling. I was rather shocked one day when a charm- 
ing young girl, halfway through college, professed 
that she knew nothing at all about any of the beauti- 
ful pictures with which her home w^as filled. I have a 
small boy friend, only five years old, who could quite 
put her to shame with all he knows about the pictures 
in his homo. He is on familiar terms with Titian's 
Lavinia and Sir Joshua Reynolds's Miss Bowles, and 
likes to tell of the little English maid's frolics with her 



HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 29 

spaniel in the great park where we see them. He 
loves the Sistine Madonna and explains how the 
beautiful mother, with her baby boy upon her arm, 
hearing from afar the call of the suffering and sorrow- 
ful, came out of the dim angel hosts of heaven and 
hastened forth with shining eyes to bring her child 
to help people in their trouble. I shall be much dis- 
appointed if this promising child does not grow up 
to discriminate between Raphael and Bouguereau, 
between Reynolds and Greuze, between the strong 
and sincere in art, and the weak and sentimental. 

If we have good success with our picture story- 
telling, it will gradually take a place of its own in the 
home life. The "Children's Picture Hour" should be 
a regular institution corresponding to the "Story 
Hour," and perhaps alternating with it at certain 
intervals. The mother should keep a good supply of 
pictures on hand, with some always in reserve for a 
surprise. They are easier to get than books, and 
cheaper, too. The art dealers have excellent lists of 
penny, nickel, and dime prints, and if we wish some- 
thing more expensive, we may get fine photographs 
from original paintings both at home and abroad. 
Files of old magazines are a rich storehouse of treas- 
ures. From their pages we may cull pictures by 
famous illustrators, like Howard Pyle, E. A. Abbey, 
Maxfield Parrish, Boutet de Monvel, Jessie Wilcox 
Smith, and many others. 

The typical child's collection contains plenty of 
animal pictures, and these are a prolific source of 
story material. Landseer's Shoeing is just what we 



30 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

want to cxpliiin the blacksmith's occupation and tell 
a story about the bay mare standing at the forge. 
Her name is Betty, a fine, high-bred creature with 
straight legs, arching neck, and a pure w^hite star on 
Ikt forehead. Her master, Mr. Bell, takes pride in 
having her rubbed down till her glossy sides fairly 
shine. She is so intelligent that when the time comes 
for her regular visit to the blacksmith she walks off 
of her own accord to the familiar spot. The blood- 
hound Laura, her boon companion, has follow^ed her 
here. No halter is necessary to keep her standing, but 
she takes her place quietly as if perfectly at home. A 
shaggy little donkey is also there waiting his turn 
very meekly. When Betty appeared at the shop, 
the blacksmith first removed her old shoes and pared 
and filed her feet. Then he chose new shoes as near 
the riglit size as possible and shaped them one by 
one. Holding the shoe in his long tongs, he thrusts it 
into the fire while he fans the flame with the bellows. 
Thence it is transferred, a glowing red crescent, to 
the pointed anvil near the window. Now the work- 
man swings his hammer upon it with ringing strokes 
and the sparks fly up in a shower. The soft metal is 
shaped at will, the ends are bent to form the heels, 
the holes pierced for the nails, and the shoe is ready 
to try on. If it is a satisfactory fit, it is thrust hissing 
into a barrel of cold water, and when it is hardened, 
it is nailed to the hoof. Betty is now having the left 
hind shoe fastened in place. The blacksmith holds 
luT foot between his legs against his leather apron. 
Laura thrusts her nose out inquisitively as if super- 




f r. ilanfstaengl, photo. 



John Andrew & Son, be. 



SHOEING 
National Gallery, London 



HOW TO IVIAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 31 

intending the job. This outline of a story can be 
filled in with many details in regard to each of the 
four figures in the picture. The blacksmith's tools 
and even the birdcage may come in for a share of 
attention. 

The picture of Prince Baltasar Carlos on his pony 
(by Velasquez) carries a story which any one may 
read on the surface, but which may be greatly en- 
riched by some historical information about the 
original of the young cavalier. The whole story runs 
something like tliis: In the country of Spain, nearly 
three hundred years ago, lived a prince name Bal- 
tasar Carlos. He w^as the first child of King Pliilip IV 
and Queen Isabella, and was therefore the heir- 
apparent to the throne of a great and powerful king- 
dom. The king was a sober, long-faced man, but the 
prince was a chubby boy, of sunny nature and win- 
ning ways. Great hopes were centered in his future, 
and he was his father's idol as well as the darling of 
the court. Whatever toys were to be had were of 
course supplied to him, but in those far-away times 
there were none of the wonderful mechanical inven- 
tions which are made nowadays for children's 
amusement. To entertain the little prince, a dwarf 
was employed as a playmate.^ But Prince Baltasar 
liked animals better than toys, and playing with his 
pets was more fun than playing with a dwarf. This 
pleased the king very much, for he was himself a true 
sportsman, and the best horseman in Spain. He was 
determined to give his son every advantage of fine 

^ See picture of Prince and Dwarf in the Boston Art Museum. 



32 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

physical training. The prince was sent to a riding- 
school when still a tiny child, and showed great skill 
and daring. His Uncle Fernando, with w^hom he was 
a favorite, was almost as proud as was the king, of 
the boy's sportsmanship. He made the prince fine 
presents of armor and dogs, and once sent him a 
spirited pony. By the time Prince Baltasar was six 
years old, he could ride his mount like a little man, 
sitting erect in the saddle with perfect ease. He had, 
of course, many fine clothes, as became a prince, and 
he liked to wear a certain green velvet embroidered 
jacket, with a bright-colored sash tied diagonally 
across his breast with the fringed ends fluttering 
beliind. With this costume he had a high-crowned, 
broad-brimmed hat wliich was very jaunty. As a 
crowning touch, liis gauntlets and riding-boots gave 
him a look of real manliness. Dressed in tliis way he 
had many a fine gallop along the country roads, exer- 
cising the plump little pony, which was so well fed in 
the royal stables that it needed a brisk gallop now 
and then. The pony was as playful as his rider, and 
knew how to please his master. 

Of course a prince could not ride unattended. His 
riding-master or some courtier followed at a suitable 
distance to see that no harm befell the boy. Some- 
times this attendant would go on ahead, wheel 
around, and watch the little cavaher approach. Then 
how proudly the six-year-old boy would square his 
shoulders and sit at attention. To teach him how to 
bear himself as a king, he was given a baton, the 
symbol of authority, and told how to carry it, and 




PRINCE BALTASAR CARLOS ON HIS PONY 
The Prado Gallery, Madrid 



THE NEV,' -^■ 

IPUBLIC ' 



ASTOR, ;■ 

TIL DEN FOUN^v 



HOW TO ]\LVKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 33 

how to use it to give orders. It was like playing he 
was field marshal at some great military occasion. 
The pony seemed to enter into the spirit of the game, 
by leaping forward with great effect. 

The king had a court painter named Velasquez, of 
whom he was very fond. Velasquez had become much 
attached to the royal household, and liked nothing 
so much as to paint the portrait of the young prince 
to please the king. He had visited the riding-school 
to watch the boy's progress in horsemanship, and 
often saw him on his country rides. The inspiration 
came to him that he could make a splendid picture of 
the scene, and he threw himself into this task with 
unusual enthusiasm. He used a large canvas, which 
made the subject seem very real and lifelike. The 
king was so proud of it that he kept it in his favorite 
palace, and it has been handed down to our own day 
in all its original beauty. 

The highest aim of every faithful parent is to im- 
press upon the children the necessity of fighting 
against temptation. So great is the power of evil in 
the world that we have come to speak of it in personi- 
fied form as a terrible beast going about seeking whom 
he may devour, or in Biblical phrase as the fallen 
angel Satan, the arch-deceiver, who makes wrong- 
doing attractive and lures the weak to destruction. 
The old legend of St. George and the Dragon is 
really an allegory in which the soul's victory over sin 
is expressed. An attractive picture of this subject, 
like Raphael's or Carpaccio's, will be a great help in 
the home in teaching the desired moral. The subject 



3-1 HOW TO SHOW PICTUKES TO CHILDREN 

of St. IVIichael slaying the dragon is even better, and 
Raphael's spirited composition is an admirable illus- 
tration from which to tell the story. St. Michael is 
described in the book of Revelation as one of the 
archangels, the warrior who leads the angelic hosts to 
victory in the great conflict between the powers of 
light and the powers of darkness (Rev. ix, 7). Swift 
as a flash of lightning is his motion thi'ough space, his 
aim is unfailing, his arm powerful. At his coming the 
Evil One falls prostrate and writhing, his courage 
vanishes — for he is really a coward; he knows there 
is no hope for him, the end has come. With one 
strong, sure stroke the avenging spear does its work, 
and the enemy is put down forever. No anger mars 
the victor's serene countenance, for his is a holy 
cause. His face sliines w4th heavenly glory. He is 
eager to be on his way as a messenger of peace rather 
than an avenger. The world beyond is waiting for 
him, and he scarcely pauses for his work; his wings 
are spread, and his body poised for immediate flight. 
And so we, having put down once and for all the 
tempting thought, go on our way rejoicing to the good 
deeds of the day. 

In making a picture tell its story, our aim is to lead 
the child to look as well as to listen. If we do all the 
talking ourselves, his attention will wander from the 
object before him. A few questions will help him to 
draw out some of the story for liimself. If he points 
out the salient features as we mention them, his 
interest is quickened and his powers of observation 
sliniulaled. By and by he will know the picture by 



HOW TO ]VL\KE PICTURES TELL STORIES 35 

heart, and is proud and pleased to retell the story. 
He will then clamor for another, but he is always 
faithful to his first favorites. 

The joyous pastime of making pictures tell stories 
is quite as feasible in the school as in the house, except 
that here with a larger audience the picture must be 
large enough for all to see. Almost every modern 
schoolroom, especially in the primary grades, boasts 
at least one such treasure. 

Millet is a prime favorite, and one of the most 
familiar schoolroom subjects is the so-called Feeding 
her Birds. This is the kind of picture which tells its 
own story so readily that the children know it by 
heart and never tire of it. The baby brother is the 
pet of the two sisters. They have been playing to- 
gether in the yard, and it was for him that the rude 
cart was made which now lies discarded during the 
lunch-time. They have played so hard that they are 
glad to sit down in the doorway to rest. Their funny 
wooden shoes make a noisy clatter when they are 
moving about, but now all is still save for the clucking 
of the hens wliich run up in the hope of getting some 
crumbs. Father is still hard at work in the garden 
and mother never rests but in this feeding-time. How 
hungry they all three are, yet the sisters generously let 
the little brother have the first taste. The younger 
of two girls can hardly wait, but watches the spoon 
w ith open mouth. Usually it is broth which French 
peasant families make the chief article of a meal, 
nourishing and appetizing. And the warmth is 
agreeable, too, we may be sure. For though the 



36 now TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

weather is mild enough for gardening, it is not so 
warm but that close caps and high-neck dresses are 
worn. 

If the school supply of pictures is rather limited, the 
enthusiastic teacher may supplement it with bor- 
rowed prints of large size from outside sources, — 
library collections and private houses. Who would 
not be glad to lend a favorite picture to a schoolroom 
for a week, that the picture might tell its own beau- 
tiful story to the children .^^ So much has been said 
and written of late about the value of story-telling in 
the schools, as a means of recreation and education, 
that it is superfluous in this place to present any argu- 
ments in its favor. Our teachers all believe in it heart- 
ily, but many are timid in their experiments, and 
lack confidence in their ability. Good pictures will 
fortify them wonderfully for the task and furnish the 
necessary material. 

It will be seen that making pictures tell stories is 
somewhat different from the so-called " picture read- 
ing " used in some schools as a part of the language 
work. The latter is apt to be fabrication rather than 
interpretation, and leads the child far afield. Is it not 
taking a great liberty with a fine work of art to tack 
an entirely extraneous story upon it.'^ One could so 
easily spoil a good thing in this way. The child 
grown to years of discretion may wish with all his 
heart he could forget some of the foolish tales of his 
own invention about some masterpiece. 

Picture story subjects may be of various kinds, 
dealing with child life or ranging over all the world 



HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 37 

interests, dealing with the life of the home or with 
outdoor pursuits, illustrating history, legend, or 
mythology. In another chapter I have classified some 
of the material most available and desirable for the 
purpose. Many of us believe that the most important 
story subject we can possibly present to the children 
in our homes is the life of Christ. This is the story, 
too, which many mothers find the hardest to tell at 
their own initiative. The New Testament narrative is 
a little beyond the child's early understanding, and is 
somewhat lacking in the explicitness which the child 
loves. The artist's imagination here comes to our aid 
with his wonderful magic. With a wealth of illus- 
trations to draw from, we have only to set the pic- 
tures before our children and the story unfolds itself 
with very simple interpretation on our part. We need 
not be troubled about theological explanations, or 
stumble over diflacult Biblical phrases. The picture 
does all the story-telling. It shows how the angel 
Gabriel came to tell Mary of the high calling of her 
coming babe; how the young mother bent rapturously 
over her child as he lay on a bed of straw; how the 
shepherds came from the fields, and the wise men 
from the East, with their gifts; how the mother 
carried her babe in her arms as she rode on a donkey 
into Egypt, with Joseph leading the way; how the 
twelve-year-old boy astonished the learned doctors in 
the Temple by his wise questions; how Jesus, come 
to manhood, was tempted in the wilderness and 
baptized in the river Jordan; how he went about 
doing good, gracing the wedding feast, blessing the 



38 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

children, encouraging the fishermen, healing the sick, 
and raising the dead; how he was transfigured before 
three of liis disciples; how he sat at supper with the 
twelve on the eve of his betrayal; how he was ar- 
rested, falsely accused, brought before Pontius Pilate, 
and crucified; how he rose again from the dead, ap- 
peared to Mary in the garden, ate supper with two of 
his friends at Emmaus, and finally ascended into heaven. 

Some of the print manufacturers have complete 
sets illustrating the life of Christ from good works of 
art. These are desirable possessions alike for the 
home and Sunday School. I am inclined to think, 
however, that a child prizes most a collection which 
has been accumulated slowly rather than bought as a 
whole, especially if he adds to it by his own exertions. 
Illustrations may be cut out of magazines, religious 
weeklies, and advertising literature of various kinds 
and supplemented by bought prints and post-cards. 

I must here tell of the little nine-year-old girl to 
whom I once gave a scrapbook of my own making 
containing good Christ pictures arranged in clirono- 
logical order, which became her chief delight. We 
began by reading the story together as the pictures 
unfolded it. How eagerly we passed from page to 
page till we reached the glorious climax. It was not 
long before she preferred to tell the story all by 
herself, and I can still hear the little voice falter sor- 
rowfully over the picture where his "cruel enemies 
crucified him," lingering tenderly on the next page 
where the loving women prepared him for burial, then 
breaking out joyously, "But he rose again from the 



HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 39 

dead and finally ascended into heaven." The child, 
now grown a woman, still keeps the tattered "Jesus 
book" among her cherished treasures. What the 
child's mother thought of the book may also be of 
interest. It came at a moment when she most needed 
it — longing as she was to have her little girl know 
and love the Christ story, but feeling shy and incom- 
petent to tell it in her own words. The pictures gave 
her confidence, and literally furnished her vocabulary. 
The same sort of testimony came to me some years 
later when I published the Life of Our Lord in Art. 
A woman who was almost a stranger stopped me in 
the street one day to tell me how she used the book 
as a means of telling the Christ story to her children. 
"I did n't know just how to begin," she said, "and 
the pictures solved the problem for me." 

A picture story program for Christmas-time can be 
arranged as a very acceptable entertainment either 
in the home or school. In the larger gatherings a 
stereopticon or radiopticon is more effective, but the 
mother talking in her own home circle can use any 
sort of prints. The Nativity story can be made up 
in a series of pictures from the Old Masters, each one 
interpreted by verses or old carols. Good Christmas 
poetry is as abundant as good Christmas art, and it is 
pleasant to match the subjects, making the poet tell 
the story of the picture. From my own collection I 
have arranged a list something like this : — 

1. Luini's Nativity in the Cathedral at Come. (A choir of 
angels overhead.) Interpreted by a verse from 
Richard Watson Gilder's Christmas hymn: — 



40 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

"Tell me what is this innumerable throng 

Singing in the heavens a loud angelic song? 

These are they who come with swift and shining feet 

From round about the throne of God the Lord of Light to greet." 

2. Correggio's No tie of the Dresden Gallery , or Fritz von 
Uhde's Holy Night. Interpreted by Alice Archer 
Sewall's poem, *'How Love Came": ^ — • 

"The night was darker than ever before 
(So dark is sin) 
When the Great Love came to the stable door 
And entered in. 

**And laid himself in the breath of kine 
And the warmth of hay 
And whispered to the stars to shine. 
And to break, the day." 

8. Van Dyck's Presepio, Corsini, Rome (child asleep on 
mother's lap). Interpreted by G. K. Chesterton's 
Carol : — 

*'The Christ-child lay on Mary's lap." 

4. Bouguereau's Repose (angels playing on musical in- 
struments and baby asleep). Interpreted by the 
Benediction Carol (Dyke's) : — 

"Sleep, Holy Babe, upon thy mother's breast; 
Great Lord of earth and sea and sky. 
How sweet it is to see thee lie 
In such a place of rest. 

"Sleep, Holy Babe, thine angels watch around, 
All bending low with folded wings 
Before the incarnate king of kings, 
In reverent awe profound." 

» From Ode to Girlliood and Other Poems, copyright 1899, by Harper 
and Brothers. 



HOW TO MAKE PICTURES TELL STORIES 41 

5. Three Wise Men on the Way, by Portaels, or Three 

Magi, by La Farge (Boston Art Museum). Inter- 
preted by the old hymn, "We three kings of Orient 
are," or by the third stanza of Richard Watson 
Gilder's Hymn. 

6. Ghirlandajo's Adoration of Kings, or Burne-Jones's 

Star of Bethlehem. Interpreted by Burdett's Carol, 
the second stanza of which tells, — 

"How they opened all their treasures 
Kneeling to that infant King; 
Gave the gold and fragrant incense 
Gave the myrrh in offering." 

7. Lotto's Adoration of the Shepherds (at Brescia, Ma- 

donna kneeling) . Interpreted by this verse by Estelle 
M. Kuril, in Christian Endeavor Worldy Christmas, 
1911: — 

*'Upon her knees before the Holy Child 

The mother falls adoring. This is He 
Whom prophets have foretold, the Undefiled, 

Whose coming all the world has longed to see. 
A heavenly messenger proclaims his birth, 

Angelic voices loud hosannas sing: 
She humbly prays and bows herself to earth, 

The first to worship him as Christ the king." 

8. Raphael's Chair Madonna. Interpreted by an old 

carol : — 



<( 



When I see the mother holding 
In her arms the heavenly boy. 

Thousand blissful thoughts unfolding 
Fill my heart with sweetest joy. 



" Each round other fondly twining 
Pour the shafts of mutual love, 
Thick as flowers in meadows shining 
Countless as the stars above." 



42 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

9. Botticelli's Madonna in the Louvre. Interpreted 
by Alice Archer Sewall's poem, "Madonna and 
Child ":^ — 

** Little Son, little Son, climb up to my breast. 
And lie amid its warmth at rest." 
But shut those stranger ej-es from me. 

My Rose, my Sorrow, my Peace divine. 
And call me * mother ' and not ' Mary,' 

Although thou art not mine. 

" It is I would climb to thy little breast. 
O, hold me there and let me rest! 
It is I am weak and weary and small. 

And thy soft arms can carry me. 
So put them under me, God, my All, 
And let me quiet be." 

10. Raphael's Sistine Madonna, as a climax to the pro- 
gram, is best interpreted by some single verse 
expressing the devotional spirit of the Christmas 
story. Some suitable ones from old church hymns 
are : — 

"Good Christian men, rejoice 

With heart and soul and voice; 
Now ye need not fear the grave: 

Peace! Peace! 
Jesus Christ was born to save. 
Calls you one and calls you all , 
♦' To gain his everlasting hall: 

Christ was born to save." * 

or 

"Praise to Jesus, Holy Child, 
Gentle infant meek and mild; 
Who can fill all hearts with peace. 
Who can make all sorrows cease. 
Hail the messenger of love ' 

Sent to man from God above." 

' From Ode to Girlhood and Other Poems, copyright 1899, by Harper 
and Hrotbers. 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 

Of many delightful ways of familiarizing our chil- 
dren with good art, the game of picture-posing is one 
which captivates the child's fancy at once. It is an 
attempt to "act out" or reproduce a famous picture. 
The child "plays" he is the figure in the picture, and 
assumes the same pose and gesture to the best of his 
ability. The game is a somewhat modernized version 
of one of the most popular of old-time amusements, 
the tableau vivant. In days when most of our pleasures 
were home-made, "tableaux" w^ere next in favor to 
amateur theatricals. They were a favorite pastime 
in stormy days indoors, when we invented our own 
subjects as we went along. The multiplication of 
children's amusements has relegated this fashion to 
the background, but it is now being revived in new 
form. The idea of reproducing famous masterpieces 
has usually been associated with the more ambitious 
efforts of public entertainments. To adopt it as a 
children's game is a comparatively new departure, 
just as it is a new thing for children to get masterpieces 
in penny prints. The plan is well worth working out 
both in the home and the school. 

The theory is perfectly simple. What could make 
children look at a picture more attentively than the 
suggestion that they are to reproduce the action of 



44 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

the figures? To get the pose and arrange the drapery 
correctly, they have to make a careful study of the 
lines and masses of the composition. While they are 
having a great deal of fun, they are unconsciously 
learning something of pictures. They are surely not 
likely to forget the make-up of a picture they have 
handled in this way. Quite aside from the art stand- 
point, such a game is a means of developing self- 
expression. On this ground it is of special interest 
to the primary teacher. It connects closely with the 
dramatic games now growing in popularity in the 
schoolroom. Apparently it accomplishes similar 
results helping the child towards flexibility and free- 
dom, while it gives him something worth remember- 
ing all his life. 

Some wonderful and never-to-be-forgotten morn- 
ings of picture games have strengthened my confi- 
dence in this new educational method. I had the 
privilege of visiting a primary school, to try a pro- 
gram with the children, and the experiment suc- 
ceeded beyond my fondest expectations. Besides my 
parcel of pictures, the rest of the apparatus was of the 
most limited kind. The teacher and I had hastily col- 
lected a few odds and ends in the way of properties. 
It is not necessary or desirable to introduce costumes 
and accessories into the schoolroom. In the home the 
conditions are altogether different and permit an 
expansion of the idea as I shall presently explain; but 
in the school the plan is on the simplest basis. Our 
selection of pictures had been made very carefully on 
this account. Pose rather than costume was the 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 4 



5 



guiding principle of choice. So we took the following 
six subjects: — 

Millet's Sower; 

Titian's Lavinia; 

Murillo's Fruit Venders; 

Madame Le Brun and her Daughter; 

Rubens's Two Sons; 

William M. Chase's Alice. 

My big parcel was eyed with eager curiosity, and 
every little face broke into smiles at the announce- 
ment of a new game. To prepare the way, the chil- 
dren first played one of their dramatic games, and 
while the runaway sheep were in the meadow, and the 
cows in the corn, little Boy Blue being fast asleep in 
the corner, w^e had a chance to pick out the boys and 
girls best adapted to the picture roles. It was a slum 
neighborhood with a mixture of nationalities; most of 
the children were poorly dressed, and some were very 
dirty. It might seem an unfavorable field for an art 
experiment. But what we wanted most was respon- 
siveness, and this good quality was found in abundant 
measure. The Portuguese children promised well for 
the Spanish types of Murillo's street children, and 
plenty of boys would do for the Sower, but how to 
match, among the ill-clad, anaemic little children of 
the poor, the plump, richly gowned Lavinia, or the 
elegant, high-bred sons of Rubens? However, w^e did 
not let such diflSculties deter us. These sons of toil 
need the picture study, even more than the children of 
the rich, to bring beauty into starved lives. We had 



46 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

come for their benefit, not to arrange an elaborate art 
entertainment for a cultured audience. 

fW'e began our program by fastening to the black- 
board a large photograph of the Sower, and telhng the 
famihar but ever new story of seed-time and harvest: 
how the sower carries in his bag the precious grain to 
feed many hungry folk; how the seed falls into the 
ground to soften and swell and push up a tiny shoot; 
how the blades grow into tall, strong stalks which 
bear the wheat -ears; how the grain ripens and is 
made into flour, and finally into fragrant loaves of 
bread. The sower's task is far-reaching in its results, 
and he regards the planting season very seriously. 
The story made every boy in the room want to be a 
sower, and we called up a little fellow to the desk 
and posed him just below the picture. The rest of the 
children formed an expectant audience, looking from 
picture to poser to pronounce upon the merits of the 
reproduction. The small sower was given a half-tone 
print to examine carefully, and then he manfully 
stepped forth as if to his task. The teacher's large 
shopping-bag was slung over his left arm and we 
taught him how to fling his right arm to and fro to 
scatter the seed, describing the arc of a circle in the 
motion. After repeating this action several times, we 
arrested his arm at the proper point to imitate the 
gesture of the picture. We were well satisfied with his 
success, and if his tremulous smile was not quite like 
the solemn dignity of the Norman peasant, it was 
certainly pleasant to see. 
I Titian's Lavinia now replaced the Sower on the 





MADAME LE BRUN AND HER DAUGHTER 





THE SOWER 



FAMOUS PICTURES AS POSED BY SCHOOL CHILDREN 



n 



r^\\r yr.' 



Wbuc lib. 

i A6TOR. LENOX 

I TiLDENFOUNOAljONS^ 



1 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 47 

wall, and the children listened to the story of the old 
Venetian painter's devotion to his motherless daugh- 
ter. I told them how he loved to dress her in pretty 
clothes to make pictures of her; how he used to send 
for her when he was entertaining his guests in the 
garden and let her bring luscious fruits for their 
refreshment. When the question came, "Would any 
little girl like to play Lavinia.^" every girl in the 
room was at our disposal. A little Jewess with kinky 
hair and round face came nearest to the type, but her 
"middy blouse" made her impossible. The child 
who wore the right kind of dress (as to cut) had little 
sticks of arms too weak to lift a tray of fruit. Here 
was a dilemma till the resourceful teacher hit upon 
the simple expedient of having the two exchange 
dresses for a few minutes. Lavinia advanced shyly, 
but forgot herself in the absorbing occupation of 
arranging the fruit just as in the picture. We had 
supplied a ten-cent silver tray for the purpose. Care- 
fully but decidedly the child placed each apple, then 
set the lemon aslant in the foreground, and laid on 
top the pink cotton rose we gave her. Then she took 
a long, steady look at the picture, as she was bidden, 
lifted the tray to the level of the forehead, turned her 
face to the audience, and behold Lavinia in the flesh. 
With instinctive grace she had poised the tray in 
exactly the right way, her plump arms describing the 
same curve as the original Lavinia's. An immediate 
success like this is a rare inspiration. Perhaps one 
ought not to expect to reach perfection twice. When 
the photographer came the next week to catch 



48 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Lavinia in his camera, the long delay in setting up 
the instrument wearied the child, and stiffened her 
muscles. At the critical moment she clutched the 
tray bravely but awkwardly, and did not lift it high 
enough to produce the right effect. So our best pic- 
ture of this little school Lavinia is only a memory. 

The story of the Fruit Venders appealed mightily 
to a class of children who themselves earn money by 
selling fruit, candy, and papers. As the photograph 
was pinned up, it brought forth a murmur of ap- 
proval : the subject was within the experience of the 
audience. The girl of the picture has sold out her 
stock and is counting over her earnings, while the boy, 
who is but just setting forth, looks on with generous 
pleasure in her success. It is a charming tale of cheer- 
ful industry and good fellowship. We chose a boy 
and girl of the same relative ages, who were much 
in earnest to do their parts well. An empty waste- 
basket was rather an inadequate representation of 
the young merchant's large stock of Andalusian 
grapes, but it was of the proper size and shape for the 
pose, and happily the children's imagination was 
equal to the supply of this trifling deficiency. 

Madame Le Brun and her Daughter requires no 
accessories, and of course we did not disrobe our 
model like the lady of the picture. The photograph 
brought forth the story of another idolized artist's 
daughter, the painter this time being a charming 
Frenchwoman. A picture or a story illustrating 
family love is always welcomed by the teacher as an 
opportunity to impress an obvious lesson. For this 




Fr. Haofstatn^'l, I'lioto. 



John Anilrcw i Son, Sc. 



LAVINIA 
Berlin Gallery 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 49 

group we arranged a teacher with an affectionate 
little girl who was only too pleased to embrace the 
object of her affection. The subject is not quite so 
easy as it looks : the lady must be seated at a height 
to require the child while standing to reach up a bit 
to bring her head to the mother's chin. The little arm 
must fall within the bend of the larger arm, to form a 
parallel curve. When the group is arranged the out- 
line should describe the form of a pyramid. 

Rubens's Sons is a lovely presentation of brotherly 
companionship. When this picture was put up, I 
explained the rich velvet and satin costumes as the 
Flemish court dress of the seventeenth century. The 
artist was court painter to the Archduke Albert and 
Isabella, and was in high favor with royalties. So he 
gave his eldest son the name of his patron, and both 
boys enjoyed all the advantages of his wealth and 
station. But fine clothes did not seem to spoil them 
as they sometimes do less sensible lads; their frank 
round faces make them very likable. It happened 
that one of the boys in our school was an Albert, and 
he was eager to play the part of Albert Rubens. For 
the younger boy, whose name was Nicholas, we 
found a lad of proportionate height. The two took 
their places below the picture. Of course boys are not 
expected to wear velvet and satin in school, and our 
models were not at all embarrassed by their shabbi- 
ness. They were proud and pleased with the honor, 
and blissfully unconscious of any incongruity between 
their threadbare suits and the elegant attire of their 
prototypes. Indeed, for the time being they fancied 



50 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

themselves dressed like the picture. As they looked 
at the print we asked each in turn, "How are the feet 
placed?" "Where is the right hand?" "Where the 
left?" and at every inquiry, the member in question 
assumed the proper position. A curious detail in the 
picture is the captive goldfinch whose perch is held 
by the younger boy. To secure a similar use of the 
hands we took a school ruler. It occurred to me after- 
wards that a more pictorial substitute would have 
been a small flag, or perhaps a whirling paper 
"windmill." 

The picture of Alice needs but little explanation to 
the average school girl. Skipping rope is one of the 
favorite games which never loses its fascination. To 
substitute a ribbon for a rope and draw it tightly 
across the back seems a simple matter. Yet the pic- 
ture is hard to make satisfactory simply because it 
requires entire self-forgetfulness to free it from stiff- 
ness. The original Alice is having a delightful time 
with no thought of looking pretty. Our little Alice, 
when practicing privately in the school hall, threw 
herself into the game with charming abandon and 
grace, not unworthy of the original. But when the 
eyes of the schoolroom were focused upon her, she 
lost her charm. Only a premiere danseuse would feel 
at ease under such circumstances. 

We carried the picture program from grade to 
grade, and in each room made a special hit with some 
one subject. With older classes we took more pains to 
explain the lines of the composition, illustrating the 
idea by simple diagrams on the blackboard. The 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 51 

counterbalancing diagonals in the figure of the Sower, 
as well as of x\lice, the pyramidal outline of the group 
of the Fruit Venders and Madame Le Brun and her 
Daughter, the curves of Lavinia's swaying body and 
uplifted arm, were all pointed out in the pictures and 
in the models. A six-subject program is inordinately 
long, and was permitted only for purposes of experi- 
ment. Under ordinary circumstances, in the school- 
room, a single picture at a time, like a single dramatic 
game or a story, is quite enough for an occasional 
exercise. A pleasant device for giving all the children 
a chance to take part is to have the girls all stand- 
ing together for the Lavinia pose, and the boys all 
together for the Sower. A single girl and boy may 
then be called out to pose for the class. 

When we see how much can be done with the game 
of picture-posing in the school, it is easy to imagine 
the almost endless possibilities for its enjoyment in 
the home. Here there is no need of haste, as in the 
schoolroom, and time and thought may go towards 
perfecting the result. Here, too, are facilities for 
accessories and costumes to complete the faitlif ulness 
of the reproduction. The repertory of subjects can be 
greatly enlarged. Many pictures, impracticable in 
the schoolroom for lack of theatrical properties, can 
be worked out easily in the home. With a large fam- 
ily of children or a neighborhood circle, it may be 
developed as far as one may wish. The effect is en- 
hanced by the use of a frame. 

It is important to hold the children to a strict ideal 
of accuracy in the essentials. For this reason a single 



62 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

picture should be done over and over again. We 
become fond of certain ones, as of certain oft- 
repeated songs. Every attempt ought to better 
previous efforts, and all the family must learn to be 
very critical. Every detail of the composition should 
be examined, remembering that nothing is too small 
to have a reason for its introduction. The angle at 
wliich a hat is set, the direction of the eyes, even the 
length of a ribbon, may seriously affect the success of 
the picture. 

Picture-posing opens a very interesting class of 
subjects for the amateur photographer. When his 
ingenuity is taxed for new ideas, he can find pleasure 
and profit in reproducing the compositions of the 
masters. If he has groups of figures to arrange, he 
may interest his sitters in posing d la some famous 
portrait group of an old master. 

The subjects for picture games cannot be chosen at 
random. A great deal of thought must go into the 
selection. Millet's figures are admirably adapted to 
the purpose. They have the plastic qualities of 
sculpture, and by merely reproducing attitude and 
gesture, the poser suggests the essential quality of 
the original. Other artists have made much of cos- 
tume, and the success of the reproduction depends 
upon the careful study of these details. This is the 
case with Van Dyck and Velasquez. The English 
and Si)anish royalties whom they painted would 
never be recognized without their court finery, for 
there is little distinctive in their attitude or gesture. 
Many famous portrait heads by the old masters are 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 53 

remembered for their quaint or fantastic headgear: 
the so-called Beatrice d'Este with her gold-meshed 
hair-net; Beatrice Cenci, with her big turban; Hol- 
bein's Jane Seymour, with her pointed cap; Botti- 
celli's Lucrezia Tornabuoni, with the pearl festoons 
and strange aigrette. Some of Reynolds's child 
pictures are delightful subjects within reach of all. 
Penelope Boothby's mob cap and lace mitts, Sim- 
pKcity's cap, and the Strawberry Girl's turban are 
easily imitated. Of course, the kind of portrait 
painting which depends upon psychological interest 
is quite beyond the province of our simple game. 

An elaborate landscape composition is also obvi- 
ously impossible in house tableaux without painted 
scenery, and it is best not to be too ambitious in this 
direction, keeping to the simplest settings. An out- 
of-doors program may be arranged in the summer, 
making a unique entertainment. Then the Sower, 
and the Lark, Murillo's Beggar Boys, and some of 
Reynolds's portraits can be rendered with most 
satisfactory effect. 

After a few experiments in picture-posing, children 
will enjoy selecting their own subjects, rummaging 
through illustrated books and magazines for their 
material. The following lists may be helpful as a 
beginning : — 

Single Girl Figures — \ 

Titian's Lavinia. 
Chase's Alice. 

Reynolds's Penelope Boothby, Age of Innocence, Miss 
Bowles, Strawberry Girl. 



54 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Bougucreau's Broken Pitcher. 

Greuze's Broken Pitcher. 

Madame Le Brun's Girl with Muff. 

Hoecker's Girl with Cat. 

Breton's Lark, the Gleaner, the Shepherd's Star. 

Girl portraits requiring careful costuming — 

Old Italian — Beatrice d'Este. 

Titian's Bella. 

Van Dyck's Princess Mary (detail of the group of Chil- 
dren of Charles I). 

Velasquez's Princess Margaret (bust in the Louvre). 

Velasquez's Princess Margaret (full length in Vienna) . 

Velasquez's Princess Maria Theresa (full length in 
Madrid). 

Single Boy Figures — 

Millet's Sower. 

French's Minute Man (sculpture). 
Velasquez's Moenippus, ^sop. 
Manet's Boy with a Sword. 
Reynolds's Little Samuel. 
Volk's Young Pioneer. 
Sully's Torn Hat (head only). 
Cuyp's boy head. 

Boy portraits requiring careful costuming — 

Gainsborough's Blue Boy. 

Millais's Bubbles. 

Watteau's Gilles of the Louvre (without accessory 
figures) . 

Van Dyck's William of Nassau. 

Van Dyck's Prince Charles (detail of the group of Chil- 
dren of Charles I). 

Van Dyck's Prince James or " Baby Stuart " (detail of 
the above group). 

Paris Bordone. Boy's head. 
Two Boys — 

Rubens's Sons. 

Millais's Princes in the Tower. 



THE GAME OF PICTURE-POSING 55 

Boy and Girl — 

Murillo's Fruit Venders. 

Millet's Potato Planters, Angelus, and Going to Work. 
Boughton's John Alden and Priscilla. 
Millais's Huguenot Lovers. 

Van Dyck's Prince Williana and Princess Mary (elab- 
orate costumes). 

Older Girl and Small Child — 

Bouguereau's Sister and Brother. 
Millet's Knitting Lesson. 
Madame Le Brun and her Daughter. 
Sergeant Kendall's An Interlude. 

Older Girl and Two Children — 
Abbot Thayer's Caritas and Virgin Enthroned. 



VI 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE MOTHER FOR 
THE child's picture EDUCATION 

To surround the child with good pictures chosen 
from subjects of greatest interest to him and in suf- 
ficient variety, to train his eye gradually in artistic 
discrimination and color feeling, to awaken his sense 
of joy in beauty, — this has been the burden of my 
little preachment. So may we wisely foster a love of 
art which will delight and enrich his life. The mother 
w^ho has these aims in view always welcomes eagerly 
any helps towards carrying them out. Story-telling 
and the game of posing I have described at some 
length as two important picture pleasures of the 
home and school. It still remains to make a few 
practical suggestions to mothers who are anxious to 
provide every advantage for the child. 

To begin with, the nursery decorations are of 
prime importance. The place should be a veritable 
picture gallery of delight to the little folks. For a 
child's symmetrical development, there should be as 
much variety as possible in the selections, both in 
subject and treatment. Delightful as are Sir Joshua's 
children, and beautiful as is the Madonna theme, the 
nursery should not be all Sir Joshuas and Madonnas. 
Where two Madonna pictures are hung they should 
represent quite dissimilar ideals : the Chair Madonna 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 57 

contrasted with the Sistine, an Itahan work with a 
German, or an old master with some modern picture. 
In methods of arrangement, some of the kindergarten 
ideas may be borrowed to advantage, as they are 
ingenious and practical. A frieze on the level of the 
child's eyes, made of separate prints and changed 
from time to time, is a pretty thing. Also a burlap 
screen on which pictures may be fastened tempo- 
rarily. The color element should be decidedly promi- 
nent but should be carefully studied to harmonize 
with the scheme of decoration. The bright, crude 
prints once regarded as peculiarly adapted to chil- 
dren have given place to artistic process w^ork in 
soft tints and low kev, which the child soon learns to 
prefer. Anything that is good in itself may be pressed 
into service, however cheap the form, post-cards in 
harmonious colors, magazine supplements, artistic 
calendars, and what-not. But with all the cheap and 
transient material, let us have one truly great thing 
as a fixture in the nursery, as an inspiring influence 
to follow one from the cradle to the grave. A Ma- 
donna and Child, St. Michael and the Dragon, the 
Boy Christ in the Temple, the Children of the Shell, 
or the Guardian Angel are especially good for this 
purpose. For other subjects consult the lists of ani- 
mal, child and story pictures. If the house is too 
small for a distinctive nursery, the living-room should 
contain at least one conspicuous picture which is of 
special interest to the child. One of Millet's sub- 
jects makes an excellent all-around family favorite. 
Illustrated children's books should be chosen with 



58 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

great care. It is false economy to buy crude, poor 
books from the bargain counters in order to spend 
more money on toys and other less important nursery 
furnishings. A really good illustrated book is copy- 
righted and commands a good price, as it should, but 
it is worth the cost. Happy the nursery possessing 
any of Boutet de Monvel's priceless volumes, or 
Walter Crane's illustrated fairy tales, or Kate 
Greenaway's lovely designs.^ 

Not the least attractive of illustrated nursery 
volumes are the children's scrapbooks of their own 
making. For this purpose the material should be 
accumulated gradually, as a delightful pursuit, the 
mother gently directing the collection that it may 
consist of really good things. It is best not to draw 
the lines too sharply to discourage a child, but so far 
as possible weed out inferior pictures from time to 
time. A scrapbook of miscellaneous pictures is best 
adapted to the little ones, but as children grow older 
they are more interested to specialize in their col- 
lections. Definite subjects may be chosen for their 
books : animals, child figures, mythology, chivalry, his- 
tory, Italian art, American art, Bible story, the life of 
Christ, famous beauties, authors, royalties and so on. 
A very pleasing idea for boys and girls bearing his- 
torical names, or names of saints, is to find pictures of 
their famous prototypes. The Georges may look for 

^ Among present-day illustrators, Jessie Wilcox Smith, Millicent Sow- 
erby and Arthur Rackham do charming work for children. A beautiful 
art treasure for children is Mrs. Isabel Anderson's Great Sea Horse, a col- 
lection of fairy tales with illustrations designed by the mural painter, 
John Elliott. 




rrjin a carboa print bj Lraun, Clement ^ L'j 



J >:.U A'.r'.T' ■■• \ 



FEEDING HER BIRDS 



THE 

.13BL1C '•^^'] 

ASTOF<, LENOX 



I 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 5Q 

the subject of St. George and the Dragon, or for the 
figure of St. George in armor represented in so many 
old altar pieces. They will find also portraits of sover- 
eigns, painters, and poets of that name, as well as a 
certain United States President. The Marys, Cath- 
erines, and Margarets will find charming pictures 
of saints of corresponding names among the works of 
old Italian masters. Cooperation and competition 
are the life of collections as of business. The children 
will keep up their interest much longer if the parents 
join with them in their search, and the fashion must 
spread through the neighborhood to give greatest zest 
to the game. 

Never throw away a good picture. A large box or 
drawer may be set apart for the purpose and the 
children taught to carry thither every print or card 
that falls into their hands, and which for the moment 
they do not know where to place. From time to 
time the contents may be examined and sorted. 
Some of the pictures will do for one kind of scrapbook 
and some for another. Some may be laid between the 
pages of books, as extra illustrations. Your books 
of history, travel, and biography may be greatly en- 
riched in this way by portraits and views collected 
from various sources. Some of the tiny pictures may 
be put together for doll's scrapbooks. Some may 
be mounted on cards for Christmas or birthday gifts, 
decorated with appropriate inscriptions — or quota- 
tions from poetry. Growing boys and girls should be 
encouraged to fill their own rooms with pictures of 
their own choosing. Even if they make mistakes, the 



60 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

experience will help towards forming their taste. They 
usually get together a medley of posters, souvenir 
programs, college pennants, valentines, and snap- 
shot photographs. But in the midst let us see that 
they have some really good picture which has come 
as a Christmas or birthday gift. Some strong and 
interesting heads for a boy's room are Michelan- 
gelo's David, Rembrandt's Officer, and Frans Hals's 
Laughing Cavalier. A girl of fine feeling likes the 
heads now commonly separated out by photograph- 
ers from famous compositions of old masters (Luini, 
Perugino, Raphael, Titian, etc.); Angels, Saints, 
or Madonnas. Burne-Jones's Flamma Vestalis, or 
Rossetti's Blessed Damozel are also favorites. Other 
subjects of suitable kinds for our young folks' rooms 
are suggested in the various lists scattered through 
these chapters. 

The practice of taking our children to art mu- 
seums and exhibitions is one which cannot be too 
often urged upon parents. It is worth making a great 
effort and even going a long distance from time to 
time to afford the child this advantage.^ Such a visit 
must be made a genuine treat, — not a disguised 
lesson, — planned and talked of beforehand as a 
festive occasion. Naturally it is a part of the festivity 
to have a car-ride and a luncheon. The first object is 

* In the Metropolitan Museum, New York, delightful art lectures for 
children have drawn hundreds of juvenile visitors to the place and in 
Boston professional story-tellers are employed to conduct children's 
parties throu^'h the Museum. But these public methods, valuable as they 
are, should not be substituted for the visits of parents, with their own 
children, to study the pictures together. 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 61 

to get impressions, and as the whole atmosphere of 
the place is unique, it cannot fail to produce some 
effect upon the imagination. One need not feel dis- 
couraged if the children come away without having 
apparently learned anything. A long time after they 
may refer to something you supposed they did not 
notice. A second visit brings a pleasant sense of 
familiarity. They enjoy recognizing something they 
saw before, and look at it now a bit more attentively. 
Little by little you may bring them around to look 
at your own favorites, or draw their attention to the 
best things. But you must begin diplomatically and 
bide your time. If a child is going to enjoy himself, 
you must not be too officious in leading the way. If 
you say, "Come, look at this," he may hang back a 
little. But if you suddenly leave him and start off on 
your own account to look at some picture, he is 
pretty sure to follow. There is absolutely no use in 
deciding beforehand what pictures you are going to 
show a child, or what he will like best. The one thing 
you can count on is that he will surprise you. I 
remember the first time I took a small boy to the 
Boston Art Museum bent on educational ends, I had 
hard work to get him out of the Japanese Garden, 
and as soon as he had dutifully follow^ed me through 
the picture gallery he wished to return to this en- 
chanted spot. A little friend w^hom I took to the 
American Old Masters room, for the express purpose 
of seeing the George and jNIartha Washington por- 
traits, was so entranced with the antique pianos that 
he cast but a single languid glance at the Father of his 



62 now TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

country. But he surprised me quite as much when we 
were hurrying through the next room, where I was 
sure there was nothing to interest him, by pausing 
before the great Velasquez, the Prince Baltasar and 
Dwarf, with sudden decisive approval, "That's a nice 
picture." And so it is. After all, what does it matter 
what the child likes best, pianos, pictures, or what- 
not, so long as it is something in this fairyland of art 
which will make him want to come again? That is the 
great desideratum. A picture gallery on a free day is 
a delightful resort for children. One can pick up 
many chance acquaintances there. The choosing 
game almost always meets a response. I have some- 
times managed to make friends very quickly with 
stray young visitors by proposing that we all walk 
around slowly, and choose the picture we like best. 
The Modern Masters room at the Boston Museum 
has many favorites. I have seen boys there quickly 
choose Regnault's Horses of Achilles, the Boy with 
the Hurdy-Gurdy, and TarbelFs beautiful portrait of 
children on horseback. 

The use of the camera opens a valuable opportu- 
nity for training boys and girls in matters of art. The 
young photographer wants to learn to make pictures, 
and his experiments duplicate in a far-off way the 
experience of the great artists. His first care is to get 
the image in the right place on the plate. If he is 
taking a house, he must have enough sky above it, 
enough grass in the foreground, and enough space on 
each side to look well. Repeated attempts show him 
what different effects he gets by changing the dis- 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 63 

tance and the point of view. He begins to realize that 
a landscape painter has a reason for every tree and 
rock in liis picture. When there are figures to photo- 
graph, the arrangement of the lines, the position of the 
hands, the turn of the head, and the focus of the eyes 
are all points to notice. If the amateur is really anxious 
to do good work, the pictures of the masters sud- 
denly become very interesting to him. The Raphaels, 
Titians, and Rembrandts, once regarded as very dull 
and grown-up subjects, are found worthy the study 
of every aspiring young photographer. What better 
arrangement for a mother holding a baby than in the 
Granduca Madonna (Raphael).^ What pose more 
graceful than that of the Man with the Glove (Ti- 
tian) ? And when was a group about a table more 
beautifully planned than in the Syndics of the Cloth 
Guild (Rembrandt).'^ The young people whose 
camera work teaches them to appreciate such pic- 
tures have made an excellent beginning in art study. 

The amateur's artistic progress depends very much 
upon the help of parents. Indiscriminate praise is 
almost as bad as indifference. Sympathetic criticism 
is just what is needed. The right-minded boy or girl 
is glad to learn how the work can be bettered. 

In a home adorned with good works of art, where 
all the family are familiar with pictures, many little 
picture games may be invented to play with the chil- 
dren. There is one in which each by turn describes a 
picture for the others to guess the name. A half -hour 
of this easy guessing is very pleasant while sitting on 
the piazza in the dark of summer nights. The game is 



64 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

made harder when the mother describes an altogether 
new picture, and the children listen intently in order 
to identify it among a mixed collection of picture 
postals and prints brought forth at the close of the 
description. Mothers will also find that a bedtime 
picture may occasionally be substituted for a bed- 
time story, the picture being vividly described, not 
actually seen. The love of pictures, like the love of 
books and music, binds parents and children together 
in delightful intimacy, and will permeate all the home 
intercourse. 



VII 

THE USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM^ 

In the modern schoolroom of the progressive type, 
pictures are among the most valued possessions. First 
of all, from the view^Doint of mere decoration, they 
add immeasurably to the attractiveness of the child's 
environment. Artistically considered their chief func- 
tion is to minister to the sense of beauty, to create 
an atmosphere of culture, and to develop the taste for 
good art. This is indeed enough to ask of pictures. 
For purely artistic reasons, every school in the land, 
like every home, should be beautified with genuine 
works of art. But the latter-day teacher makes pic- 
tures serve many purposes besides their original 
aesthetic end, using them in a multitude of ways to 
enrich the course of study. Even these secondary 
uses have an indirect artistic value, for any method 
is praiseworthy which arouses a child's interest in 
good art. The work of the school grades begins with 
stocking the child's mind with certain fundamental 
concepts: ideas of animals, flowers, fruit, and the 
various phenomena of nature; ideas of the family: 

^ In many of our large cities there are societies to further artistic inter- 
ests in the schools ; The School Art League of New York ; the Chicago 
Public School Art Society ; the Buflfalo School Art Association ; and similar 
organizations in Columbus, Ohio; Evanston, Illinois; Houston, Texas; 
Washington, D.C. ; and Worcester, Massachusetts. A great work has 
also been done by many women's clubs and High School Alumni as- 
sociations in furnishing pictures for schoolroom decoration. 



GG HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

the relations of parents, brothers, and sisters; ideas 
of home life and occupations; ideas of the world's 
work, in the field and factory, on land and sea; ideas 
of the cliild's own interests, activities, and plays. 
^Yhat a storehouse of pictures is at the primary 
teacher's command to impress all these lessons upon 
the pupil's mind. If large pictures are not to be had, 
small prints are almost always available; if expensive 
prints cannot be afforded, the newspapers and adver- 
tisements come to our aid. 

As to the variety of animal pictures to be had, I 
speak at length in a special chapter. We have dogs 
and deer by Landseer and Rosa Bonheur; lions by 
Barye, Bonheur, and Rubens; horses by Bonheur, 
Dagnan-Bouveret, and many others; cows by 
Troy on and Van Marcke; sheep by Mauve; foxes by 
Liljfors and Winslow Homer. Let me urge again the 
importance of choosing really good animal art, pic- 
tures of animals which are alive, not stuffed; animals 
wliich show their real nature, not the caricatured half- 
human type. 

In bringing out the happiness of family love all 
teachers find the Madonna pictures the most satis- 
factory expression of motherly tenderness. The 
strong maternal element in Raphael's Chair Madonna 
makes it a prime favorite, and Dagnan-Bouveret's 
Madonna of the Arbor is another making the same 
sort of appeal. Beautiful portraits of mother and 
child are Madame Le Brun and her Daughter, Rom- 
ncy's Mrs. Cawardine and Babe, and many examples 
by Reynolds, like the Duchess of Devonshire and her 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM C7 

Baby; Lady Spencer and Boy; Mrs. Payne-Gall way, 
and so on through a long list. Meyer von Bremen's 
Little Brother shows two children eagerly gazing on 
the newborn baby in the arms of the mother. Millet's 
First Step brings in the whole family, the mother 
supporting the baby toddler as he starts on his jour- 
ney across the yard to the outstretched arms of his 
kneeling father. Bouguereau's Sister and Brother is 
used to show how the older child becomes a little 
mother to the younger, and Rubens's Two Sons 
charmingly illustrates brotherly love. 

To illustrate farm labor Millet and Breton furnish 
many subjects, from the sowing of the seed to the 
gleaning of the harvest. The spirit of play — simple 
gayety of heart — is delightfully illustrated in such 
subjects as Chase's Alice, Israels's Boys with a Boat 
and Murillo's Beggar Boys. How all these pictures 
may be used for story-telling and for the game of pic- 
ture-posing I explain in separate chapters. The 
teacher may also have ways of her own for pointing 
out the lessons she wishes to inculcate. 

The use of pictures in language work runs through 
all the school grades. The picture furnishes some- 
thing to talk about or write about. It stimulates 
observation, starts up the thinking apparatus, and 
arouses the imagination. Among younger children 
teachers usually prefer story pictures, that is, illus- 
trative or anecdotic compositions embodying a more 
or less dramatic situation. The pupil is drawn out 
by a series of questions: "When did the action take 
place, that is, at what time of the day or season of the 



68 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

year?" "Where does the action take place, indoors 
or out, in city or country, and in what land?" "Who 
are the actors? and what are they doing?" This 
process is called picture-reading, and forms the basis 
of the pupil's story composition. The method is one 
which easily lends itself to exaggeration, if we go 
beyond the limits of these questions. It is best to 
keep our "reading" to just what is really written in 
the picture, merely getting out of it the meaning the 
artist put into it for our pleasure. When we build 
upon this foundation a long imaginary tale about the 
persons of the picture, the process is apt to lead far 
afield from the proper use of pictures. The sharp 
distinction which is made in language work between 
description and narration applies equally to pic- 
tures. Sully's Torn Hat, for instance, or Manet's 
Boy with the Sword, is a subject for description, while 
Blommers's Shrimp Fishers or Kaulbach's Pied 
Piper is really a story picture. A story picture may 
be treated in either way, descriptively or dramati- 
cally, but the non-story picture is less flexible, and 
should be merely described. A landscape, for in- 
stance, is not, properly speaking, a story picture, and 
in language work should be reserved for pure nature 
description. The chapters on "Animals," "Chil- 
dren's Pictures," and "Story Pictures" will suggest 
abundant material to the language teacher. The 
writer of a composition based upon a picture is bound 
to scrutinize the subject until every detail is stamped 
on the memory, and thus the child's art repertory is 
cnlarL^ed. 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 69 

The uses of pictures in the study of literature are 
manifold. It is a long standing custom for teachers to 
familiarize their pupils with the portraits of the poets 
whose works they are taught to love. The benign 
countenance of Longfellow and the prophet-like head 
of Tennyson look down from many schoolroom walls. 
For nineteenth-century writers it is customary to 
use the accredited photographic portraits. For the 
celebrities of the older centuries we have many ideal 
heads. Raphael's two great frescoes in the Hall of 
the Segnatura (Vatican) called Parnassus and the 
School of Athens, contain some fine figures of the 
poets and philosophers of antiquity: Homer, Dante, 
Virgil, and Ovid, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc. I 
always find high-school pupils greatly interested in 
these pictures, though I do not recall seeing them in 
any school hall or catalogue. ^ Two modern pictures 
giving vivid interest to the life story of the poets I 
represented are Munkacsy's Milton dictating Para- 
dise Lost and Dicksee's Swift and Stella. 

A few illustrations of famous poems are specially 
adapted to schoolroom decoration, for the benefit 
of the literature classes. Such are: Hiawatha as a 
boy, by Elizabeth Norris; Walker's four lunettes in 
the Congressional Library illustrating the Boy of 
Winander (Wordsworth's Prelude), Adonis (Shelley), 
Endymion (Keats), and Comus (Milton); Landseer's 
Twa Dogs, to illustrate Burns's poem; Kaulbach's 

^ Since this was written I have seen with great pleasure a beau- 
tiful Arundel print of the Parnassus in the Waltham (Mass.) High 
School. 



70 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Pied Piper, for Browning's poem; Boughton's John 
Alden and Priscilla, for Miles Standish; Stothard's 
Canterbury Pilgrims for Chaucer's Prologue. For 
older classes, Rossetti's Dream of Dante, illustrating 
a passage in the Vita Nuova; the same painter's 
Blessed Damosel, illustrating his own poem, and 
Alexander's Pot of Basil, for Keats's poem, may be 
used, the languorous type of beauty in the pictures 
corresponding to the character of the verse. Two 
pictures illustrating the moment of Dante's first 
seeing Beatrice are by Ary Scheffer, and Holiday. 
On the whole, the world's great poetry has not been 
and indeed cannot be adequately illustrated. The 
pictures which a teacher can best use in literature 
study are thoSe illuminating in a general way the 
subject treated. For instance, in studying the origin 
of the drama, a flood of light is thrown on the old 
Mysteries and Miracle Plays by the works of the 
contemporary Italian painters. The story of the 
Nativity and of the Saviour's Passion, first arranged 
in scenes in the cathedral and later acted in the 
public squares, was staged, so to speak, just as in 
the pictures by Giotto and Duccio. Later painters 
still adhered to the same traditions and a Nativity 
by Pinturicchio or Luini or the Crucifixion in the 
Spanish Chapel, Florence, would be excellent illus- 
trative material of this kind. Tennyson's Idyls of the 
King are illuminated, but not directly illustrated, by 
Abbey's decorations in the Boston Public Library, 
which follow the Morte d' Arthur more closely than 
the poet. The statue of King Arthur from Charle- 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 71 

magne's tomb at Innsbruck fairly puts Tennyson's 
hero before us. Watts's Sir Galahad is a figure well 
liked in the schools. Any pictures embodying the 
spirit of chivalry throws light on the Idyh. I cannot 
think of anything better than Millais's noble work, 
Sir Isumbras at the Ford, where the gentle old knight 
carries the two children safely across the stream. A 
modern series of pictures by Blair Leighton gives the 
four stages of knighthood: The Vox Populi, or Accla- 
mation; the Dedication; the Accolade; the Godspeed. 
Pupils studying Shakespeare should be encouraged 
to collect pictorial Shakespeariana, a pursuit which 
may become so engrossing that they will follow it all 
their lives. The making of the Shakespeare scrap- 
book will work both ways, to fix the characters and 
plots in the memory, and cultivate artistic discrimi- 
nation. The material consists, first of all, of course, 
of all the portraits one can find of the dramatist him- 
self, as well as views of Stratford-on-Avon. Por- 
traits of great Shakespearian actors are also of prime 
importance, and such a search offers endless possibili- 
ties. The list extends from the famous English trage- 
dienne, Mrs. Siddons, whom Reynolds portrayed so 
superbly as the Tragic Muse, to the stars of our own 
generation, whom latter-day photography has repre- 
sented in every pose and costume. There are besides 
many ideal pictures of Shakespearian characters 
from Reynolds's Puck to Millais's Portia. Ideal illus- 
trations of Shakespearian scenes are not so easy to 
find, but should be added when possible. Abbey's 
series are of this class. The extra-illustrated Shakes- 



7^ HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

peare is a glorified form of Shakespearian collection, 
bringing text and illustration together — a scrapbook 
de luxe. One begins by laying in loose pictures here 
and there in a volume until the binding breaks with 
the strain. Then the book is taken to pieces, the 
pages interleaved with illustrations, and the whole 
collection rebound. It is a worthy ambition to stimu- 
late in young people to be possessed of an entire set 
of single-play volumes, each one the basis of a picture 
collection. 

Connecting equally well with work in literature or 
history is the general subject of the evolution of book- 
making. Alexander's series of six lunettes in the 
Congressional Library illustrate this theme with 
remarkable success. Mounted in a single frame this 
row of photographs (or colored reproductions) is in 
high favor in schools. There are other pictures, too, 
of correlated interest showing the book customs of 
those far-away times before the printing-press. Old 
pictures of St. Augustine in his cell poring over his 
books, or of St. Jerome translating the Bible, give an 
idea of the library accessories in the time of the 
painters, Botticelli, Ghirlandajo, Bellini, or whoever 
it happened to be. A very pretty subject by Cabanel, 
called The Florentine Poet, is a garden scene of 
Renaissance Florence where a wandering story-teller 
relates to a group of young listeners a tale of love and 
adventure. Alma Tadema's Reading from Homer car- 
ries a similar subject into still more ancient times. 

The domain of classic mythology is contiguous both 
to literature and to history. It is. a fairyland of 



USE OF riCTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 73 

dreams and visions beloved by children of every age. 
Not all the subjects lend themselves to art, but some 
have been beautifully illustrated, and such works are 
of immense interest in the schoolroom. The teach- 
ers of Greek and Latin need them as much as the 
teachers of literature and history. One must make 
the selections carefully, avoiding a certain line of 
subjects, like the amorous adventures of the gods, 
which are quite unsuited for use. It is through 
antique marbles that we get our highest conception 
of Greek divinities. The great sculpture museums of 
the Old World contain noble statues of Zeus (Jupiter), 
the sky father; and Hera (Juno), his spouse; of 
Athena (Minerva), the Queen of the Air; and Aphro- 
dite (Venus), the beautiful; of Ceres, the mother of 
the race; of Apollo and Diana, rulers of sun and moon; 
of Hermes (Mercury), the messenger of the gods; and 
all the rest. Like the portraits of sovereigns, as a 
background of history, these sculptured figures form 
the background of our mythological lore, and should 
be made familiar to school children of higher grades 
either in plaster reproductions or in photographs of 
the originals. A few modern representations may be 
added to our collection of antiques, like Bologna's 
Flying Mercury and Vedder's Minerva. 

Our list of pictures naturally begins with that uni- 
versal favorite, Guido Reni's Aurora, representing 
the sun god driving his horses across the sky. Another 
good picture of the same subject is by Guercino. An 
appropriate companion picture is Correggio's Diana, 
the moon goddess, setting forth for the chase in a 



74 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

chariot drawn by a stag. The fluttering veil and 
wind-blown hair and garments give an effect of breezy 
motion to the picture. A quiver full of arrows is 
slung across her shoulder, with the bow. The cres- 
cent moon gleams above her forehead. A charming 
picture of the same goddess sporting with her nymphs 
in a smiling landscape is by Domenichino, in the Bor- 
ghese Villa, Rome. The fair shepherd Endymion, with 
whom Diana fell in love as he lay asleep among his 
flocks, is also treated in art. There is a little circular 
panel by the old Venetian painter Cima, in the Parma 
Gallery, and a lunette by Walker in the Congressional 
Library, both showing the youth asleep. As Diana 
is attended by nymphs, so Apollo, as patron of the 
arts, is surrounded by the nine muses. Thus we see 
them all circling around in a rhythmic dance in the 
picture by Giulio Romano, in the Pitti, Florence. 
Another picture of these figures may be had by isolat- 
ing the central group in Raphael's famous fresco of 
Parnassus. Apollo's pursuit of Daphne is a subject 
painted by Giorgione (Seminario, Venice), but the 
figures are rather inconspicuous in a landscape. A 
graceful group by the late Italian sculptor Bernini is 
in the Borghese, at Rome. 

The Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne is not an 
especially important incident in mythology, but it 
happens to be the subject of one of the finest works 
of the Venetian Renaissance. The picture is by 
Tintoretto, in the Venice Academy. Venus hovering 
in tlie air joins the hands of the lovers and marries 
them with a ring. Grace and poetry of motion, flow 




Alinari, photo. 



DIANA 

Convent of S. Paolo, Parma 



put 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 75 

of line, beauty of modeling, and harmony of color 
could hardly go farther, and the pure joy of living, 
which is the essence of the Greek spirit, is perfectly 
expressed here. Titian's Bacchus and Ariadne in the 
National Gallery, is also a celebrated and beautiful 
picture, showing the young god leaping from his 
chariot drawn by leopards, as he first sees Ariadne. 
Watts's Ariadne in Naxos (Metropolitan Museum) is 
a noble picture full of dignity and expression. The 
Birth of Venus from the Sea is a subject too often 
emphasized on the sensuous side, but Botticelli's 
famous and beautiful picture (Florence Academy) 
expresses the essential poetry of the myth. The god- 
dess floats on a seashell towards the shore where she 
is welcomed by the Graces. 

A mythical hero endeared to us in Hawthorne's 
Wonder Book is the gallant Perseus, who set forth to 
secure the Medusa's head and ended by the rescue of 
Andromeda. He was equipped for the adventure, as 
we all remember, by the sandals of Hermes and the 
helmet and shield of Athena. Burne-Jones has illus- 
trated the whole tale in a series of five pictures, of 
which the best subject for school is the hero receiving 
the precious gifts from the sea maidens. The bronze 
statue by Cellini, which is one of the sights of Flor- 
ence in the Loggia dei Lanzi, shows the victor stand- 
ing on the body of Medusa holding aloft his gruesome 
trophy, the head with the snaky locks. Canova, in a 
later century, repeated the same subject in a more 
elegant but less vigorous figure in marble. The Res- 
cue of Andromeda is the subject of a fresco by Guido 



76 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Reni, in the Farnesina at Rome, not a great work, 
but an excellent illustration. Old Cosimo Roselli 
made the story the subject of some quaint and 
delightful panels in the Pitti Gallery, Florence. The 
monster dragging his long body towards the fainting 
maiden is like Carpaccio's dragon in the story of 
St. George, a creature to produce delicious thrills of 
horror and amusement. 

The tale of Europa's elopement on the back of the 
bull is one we might not be keen about but for its 
beautiful rendering in Venetian art. Veronese's opu- 
lent picture in the decorations of the Doge's Palace 
is one to remember, and the fine work of Titian, 
admired by Rubens, is one of the chief treasures of 
Fenway Court, Boston. Other mythological pictures 
in which young people will find pleasure and profit 
are Curzon's Psyche, bringing from Hades the casket 
of beauty to Venus, passing with bated breath the 
three-headed Cerberus (Louvre) ; Regnault's Autom- 
edon with the Horses of Achilles; Watts's Orpheus 
and Eurydice, full of tragic feeling; Atalanta's Race, 
by Poynter, showing the fleet-footed maiden stooping 
as she runs to catch up the fatal ball; and Titian's 
Three Graces. The Three Fates have been treated 
by several painters, and one can choose between the 
attractive modern pictures by Simmons and Thu- 
mann, or, if preferred, take the old Italian work once 
attributed to Michelangelo, representing the weird 
sisters as rather fearsome old w^omen. Of kindred 
interest are the sibyls, so often referred to in classic 
literature and mythology. Among the series by 




Alinari, Photo. 



Jibn Andrew k Sun, Sa. 



THE DELPHIC SIBYL 
Sisdiie Chapel, Rome 



TH 

PUL 




sj 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 77 

Michelangelo on the Sistine Chapel ceiling two figures 
are of special interest in the schoolroom, the Delphic 
and the Cumaean. The Delphic Sibyl presided over 
the temple of Apollo in Delphi, as a sort of priestess. 
Here the people came to consult her and she delivered 
the message, or oracle, comnmnicated to her by the 
god. The Cumaean Sibyl lived in a great cave at 
Cumse, where, according to Virgil, iEneas came to en- 
list her aid to visit his dead father. At Wellesley 
College is a large painting by Elihu Vedder, often 
reproduced, showing the Cumaean Sibyl stalking 
across the desert, a fierce old creature, carrying her 
precious oracles to the Roman Emperor Tarquin. 

The purely classical spirit has never been more ad- 
mirably expressed than in the works of the late Sir 
Frederick Leighton. Herakles wrestling with death 
for the body of Alkestis and the Captive Andromache 
at the fountain are among the few subjects commonly 
reproduced. When one reads the long list of classic 
subjects the painter treated, it seems much to be 
desired that such treasures should be known to us all. 
Some of the Homeric stories centering in Ulysses 
have sometimes been illustrated. By Guido Reni, in 
the Naples Museum, is Ulysses with Nausicaa and 
her Maidens; and by Pinturicchio, in the National 
Gallery, the Return of Ulysses to Penelope. 

The history teacher, more than any other, perhaps, 
needs pictures. First of all she wants plenty of por- 
traits as a background for the story of the nations. 
Unfortunately it is impossible to collect a series of 
uniform merit, and in trying to fill the gaps, there is 



78 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

danger of mixing indiscriminately the good and the 
inferior. The following list of really fine works may 
be helpful: antique statue of the Emperor Augustus 
(Vatican, Rome); antique equestrian statue of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Capitol, Rome) ; Vischer's 
statue of King Arthur, from Charlemagne's tomb; 
Saint-Gaudens's statue of Lincoln, and the equestrian 
group of General Sherman led by Victory; Stuart's 
heads of George and Martha Washington; Sebastian 
del Piombo's Columbus, in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum; Titian's Francis I, Charles V, and Philip II; 
Velasquez's Philip IV and the young princes and 
princesses of his court; Goya's Charles IV of Spain; 
Henry VIII, from copies of Holbein's portraits, and 
Holbein's drawings of the statesmen of his court; 
Diirer's Maximilian; Antonio Moro's Queen Mary; 
Clouet's Elizabeth of Austria; Van Dyck's Charles I, 
Queen Henrietta Maria, many of their courtiers and 
statesmen, besides the young princes and princesses of 
the family; Sir Peter Lely's Charles II; Richter's 
Queen Louise (ideal); Rigaud's Louis XIV; Greuze's 
Louis XVI, and the Dauphin (son of Louis XII and 
Marie Antoinette), and Napoleon; Drouais's Les 
Enfants de France (Charles and Marie Adelaide, in 
the Louvre); Madame Le Brun's Marie Antoinette 
alone, and the same queen with her children, both 
pictures at Versailles; Lenbach's Bismarck. The 
pupil who gets an insight into a historical character 
by means of a fine portrait has gained something 
towards understanding the meaning of portrait art. 
In the study of ancient history there is very great 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 79 

need of a class of pictures which reconstruct the past, 
so to speak, and do this with trustworthy accuracy. 
An enthusiastic teacher once said to me phiintively: 
"After I have given my classes a glowing account of 
the glories of Rome, all I can show them is ruins!" 
It is surely too. much to ask of the ordinary pupil to 
transform a collection of pillars and stones into the 
Roman Forum as it looked to Cicero. ^Yhile a few 
architectural views are desirable, it is wiser not to 
multiply them, and especially not to choose those 
which are mere heaps of stones. Maccari's series of 
subjects, from the decorations of the present Roman 
Senate Chamber, is very useful; particularly those 
representing Cicero's Oration against Catiline and 
Claudius entering the Senate. Piloty's Triumph of 
Germanicus is a picture I have seen worked as a 
mine of historical information by a. veteran history 
teacher. By the same painter is an interesting pic- 
ture of The Last Moments of Julius Ca?sar. Wag- 
ner's Chariot Race, Vernet's Roman Triumph, and 
Leroux's School of Vestals are all good reconstruc- 
tions. Salvator Rosa's Conspiracy of Catiline and 
David's Oath of the Horatii (both in the Louvre) are 
standard works of the old school of classical painting. 
Two pictures by Gabriel Max, The Last Token and 
The Lion's Bride, illustrate the tragedies of the Ro- 
man persecutions of Christians. 

In French history the most richly illustrated sub- 
ject is the career of Napoleon. This suggests an excel- 
lent opportunity to a class to make collections or 
scrapbooks of pictorial Napoleonic material. Files 



80 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

of old magazines will yield many contributions, be- 
sides prints and photographs to be had from art 
dealers. I have seen one interesting collection of this 
kind in which I noted the following subjects : Meis- 
sonier's "1814"; Wilkie's Napoleon and the Pope at 
Fontainebleau; Statue of Napoleon, by Vela, at Ver- 
sailles; the monument at Waterloo; photograph of the 
palace at Fontainebleau; photograph of the throne 
at Fontainebleau; photograph of Napoleon's tomb in 
Paris; many miscellaneous portraits of Napoleon, 
Josephine, and Marie Louise from magazine articles. 
Jeanne d'Arc is another character in French history 
whose life has been so fully illustrated that one can 
make charming collections of artistic material in this 
line. A friend of mine has such a scrapbook of many 
treasures. It contains, of course, Bastien-Lepage's 
Vision of Joan of Arc in the Metropolitan Museum; 
Fremiet's famous statue, the ideal figure by Ingres, 
and Rossetti's Jeanne d'Arc Kissing the Sword of 
Charlemagne. There are besides some subjects from 
the decorations of the Pantheon : Flandrin's Joan of 
Arc in prayer; and by Lenepveu, the Martyrdom of 
Jeanne d'Arc and Jeanne d'Arc at the Coronation 
of Charles VII. Others are Joan of Arc taken pris- 
oner by Rowland Wheelwright, and Joan of Arc going 
into Battle, by Lionel Royer. Boutet de Monvel's 
fascinating child's illustrated Jeanne d'Arc is un- 
happily out of print, but may be seen in large libra- 
ries. Two popular pictures connected with French 
history are the Charlotte Corday of the Corcoran 
Gallery and Millais's Huguenot Lovers. 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 81 

In the study of English history the teacher finds 
rich illustrative material in the noble old buildings of 
England, — cathedrals, abbeys, and castles, — about 
which cluster the memories of so many epoch-making 
events. These views, together with the countless 
number of historical portraits from the English 
portrait painters, make a far better showing than the 
rather scarce and inferior anecdotic paintings of 
English historical events. In recent years an ad- 
mirable contribution to English historical art for 
school use is the series issued by Longmans. There is 
one set of pictures in black and white, and another in 
color designed by H. J. Ford, intended for wall deco- 
rations. These are in use in the library and schools of 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 

In our zeal for illustrating the history of our own 
nation, a good many pictures are often collected 
which have little or no artistic merit. The following 
list of subjects can be recommended to teachers: — 

The Recall of Columbus, by George Augustus Heaton 
(Capitol, Washington). 

Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella, by 
Vacslav von Brozik (in the Metropolitan Museum). 

George H. Boughton's many colonial subjects, including 
Pilgrim Exiles, Pilgrims Going to Church, the Return of 
the Mayflower. 

French's statue of the Minute Man at Concord, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Washington and Lafayette at Mount Vernon (Rossi ter). 

Trumbull's Signing of the Declaration of Independence.^ 

Abbey's Reading of the Declaration of Independence, in 
the Capitol at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Dallin's series of Indian equestrian subjects, the best, per- 



1 



82 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

haps, being the Appeal to the Great Spirit. Others are 
the Signal of Peace; the Protest; the Medicine Man; an 
Indian Hunter. 
Moran's series of historical marine subjects, about a dozen 
in number, in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Certain local historical subjects are being used by 
contemporary mural painters with good effect in the 
decoration of American public buildings. Such, for 
instance, is F. D. Millet's Treaty with the Indians, 
in the Capitol at St. Paul, Minnesota, and such the 
Edict of Lord Baltimore, by E. H. Blashfield, in the 
Baltimore Court-House. 

It is in view of so many lesson uses of pictures that 
our schools have multiplied the prints on the walls in 
the last years, greatly beautifying the rooms. Edu- 
cators and dealers have prepared carefully graded 
lists of subjects corresponding to the school grades. 
These are helpful and suggestive, but by no means 
final. No two schools, and no two homes, should 
be decorated alike. Mechanical monotony is to be 
avoided. There is danger, too, of letting the utili- 
tarian view of art take precedence of the prime value 
of pictures as pure decoration and pure joy. The 
educator must be careful not to let the instructive 
element outweigh the aesthetic. 

The wall pictures are only a part of the school 
picture equipment. The enterprising teacher makes 
portfolio collections on her own account, and en- 
courages the pupils to collect prints in such ways as I 
have indicated. The stereopticon, the reflectoscope, 
or the radiopticon are also in wide use in school lee- 



USE OF PICTURES IN THE SCHOOLROOM 83 

ture work. The teacher who has once caught the en- 
thusiasm for pictorial lesson helps will leave no stone 
unturned to add to the repertory. 

Reference Books: — 

Severance Burrage and Henry T. Bailey. School 
Sanitation and Decoration (second part). 

M. S. Emery. How to Enjoy Pictures. Chaj)tcr on *' Pic- 
tures in the Schoolroom" (by Stella Skinner). 

*^Art Museums and Schools*' ; Four Lectures delivered 
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Report of the Committee on Instruction by Means of 
Pictures. Boston Public Schools, School Docu- 
ment No. 6, 1913. Valuable hst of stercopticon 
slides illustrating the scenery, architecture, and 
industries of many lands, to connect with lessons in 
geography, history, and science. 



VIII 



ANIMAL PICTURES 



From time immemorial children have loved ani- 
mals, as pets and playfellows, as toys, as heroes of 
nursery tales, and as the subject of pictures. With- 
out trying to analyze the psychological reasons, we all 
accept the fact. When other resources fail in amus- 
ing a child, we are always glad to fall back on this 
one absolutely sure subject of interest. In the school 
and in the home, animal pictures are much used to 
combine amusement and instruction. The teacher 
takes them to illustrate nature lessons, and the mo- 
ther finds them helpful in pointing many a moral. 
One cannot begin too early to enlist the child's sym- 
pathy with the brute creation. 

What constitutes a good animal picture? Correct 
drawing, certainly, but this is not enough. The ani- 
mal must seem to be alive. He must show, too, his 
distinguishing characteristics. We know by his looks 
what manner of beast he is, gentle or fierce, sly, 
heavy or fleet-footed. It requires no mean ability to 
produce a real work of animal art. It means a faith- 
ful study of the nature and habits of the animal, and 
a special aptitude on the part of the artist. Two com- 
mon faults are conspicuous in much of the animal art 
given to children. One is stiffness, or lack of vitality: 



ANIMAL PICTURES 85 

apparently some illustrators do all their work from 
natural history collections. The other is the human- 
izing of the animal character. This quality is doubt- 
less the logical outcome of animal folk-lore, which 
attributes human sentiments to wild creatures. If 
we are zealous for good art, we must look out for 
these faults when making our selections. 

In the childhood of the race, as in the childhood of 
the individual, animals were the favorite art subject, 
as we see in the ancient sculpture of various peoples. 
Centuries before the age of painting, the figure dec- 
orations of temples and palaces consisted largely of 
lions and horses. Critics still visit the British mu- 
seum to marvel at the lion hunt so realistically de- 
picted on an Assyrian bas-relief, and the noble caval- 
cade of horses forming the frieze of the Parthenon. 
The best modern animal painters have something to 
learn from these. The painters of the early Christian 
centuries had very little idea of animal art. As their 
subjects were chiefly religious, animals were mere 
accessories to them, represented with childlike crude- 
ness. In the old Nativity scenes the ox and the ass, 
standing (or kneeling) beside the manger, look like 
the wooden toys of a Noah's ark, and the horses in 
the procession of the Magi, or in the Crucifixion 
scenes, are stiff wooden models covered with gorgeous 
trappings. Only once in a while some painter with a 
keener eye for street scenes would catch a child with 
a pet dog and smuggle him into the corner of his pic- 
ture. You find such a group in a great fresco by Bot- 
ticelli in the Sistine Chapel, and another in Titian's 



86 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

famous Presentation of the Virgin, as well as in his 
Ecce Homo. But these are exceptions. It was late 
in the history of painting when the animal came into 
his own, when the perfection of technique made every 
branch of art possible. We may date the beginning 
of modern animal art from the seventeenth century 
Dutch school. From this time on, the most mediocre 
artist could make a presentable animal picture. But 
it is only now and then that an artist has attained 
high distinction in the subject. There is perhaps a 
general idea that the animal world is not quite worthy 
the entire life devotion of a master, but a few have 
forcibly refuted this error and their work reveals un- 
dreamed-of possibilities in this direction. When you 
put the lion of the ten-cent picture book beside the 
lion of Barye, you see the difference between repre- 
senting the outer skin and the real leonine nature. One 
is a stuffed museum specimen, and the other is the 
king of beasts. 

The child's first animal pictures are single figures, 
as are his first pictures of children. The simple ob- 
ject, without accessories, appeals directly to him, 
and is most easily understood. Of course, it would 
be impossible to make a complete collection of sin- 
gle animal figures from masterpieces of art, but one 
can get a goodly number of subjects from Landseer 
and Rosa Bonheur. Landseer's Newfoundland, and 
the head My Dog are good examples. Some fine 
animal heads are among the works of Rosa Bon- 
heur, as the shepherd's dog of the Wallace collection, 
the mastiff, Flambau, and the companion subjects 




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ANIMAL PICTURES 87 

sometimes called "Peace" and "\Yar," a horse and a 
lion. 

The child's first favorites are his domestic pets, the 
dog, the cat, and the bird. Next come the farm ani- 
mals which the kindergarteners describe as the child's 
friends, the hens which give him eggs to eat, and the 
cow which gives him milk to drink, the sheep which 
give their wool for his clothes, the horse which carries 
him to and fro, and the oxen which draw his heavy 
burdens. Then come the creatures of the woods, tlie 
rabbits, squirrels, fox and deer, the beasts of the jun- 
gle, the lion and the tiger, the strange creatures of 
polar regions and the mythical monsters of old poetry 
and legend. 

All cliildren are delighted with pictures of children 
w^th their pets, like Hoecker's little Dutch girl with 
a kitten, who has won so many child friends. Such pic- 
tures are not strictly animal art, but often their cliief 
charm to children is the pet — the first thing to ex- 
claim over as they fall upon the picture with rapture. 
Many portrait painters have represented their ju- 
venile sitters with their pets, notably Velasquez. The 
Prince Baltasar Carlos on his pony illustrates almost 
every quality we desire in a child's picture. We hardly 
know which is more charming, the sleek little ani- 
mal with his plump round body or the joyous child 
astride him. The same young prince witli his hiiiiling 
dog is also a notable work in the Prado Museum. 
There is tremendous latent power in that big, lazy- 
looking creature lying beside his young master. Van 
Dyck several times painted his Prince Charles with a 



88 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

dog, but the animal is rather a decorative accessory 
than a Hve and interesting creature. Reynolds treated 
the child's canine friends with more sympathy. The 
spaniel which little Miss Bowles holds in a chok- 
ing embrace captivates us with his bright eyes, while 
the delightful poodle over which the baby Princess 
Sophia creeps divides favor with his young mistress. 
A lovely subject originated by Murillo is that of the 
child St. John Baptist with a lamb. It was this saint, 
as will be remembered, who referred to the Saviour 
as the *'lamb of God," and for this reason it became 
a fixed tradition in sacred art to make the lamb a dis- 
tinguishing mark of the saint. The idea is very pretty 
when used as Murillo used it to make the gentle little 
creature a playmate for the child. There are at least 
four pictures of this subject. 

The child passes gradually from single figures of an- 
imals, and pictures of children with animal pets, to 
more elaborate compositions showing the many-sided 
life of the animal. It is only by multiplying examples 
that one can understand how many poses an animal 
can assume, or what variety of motions he is capable 
of. The statuesque pose of Landseer's Newfound- 
land is quite a different thing from the relaxed figure 
of the Sleeping Bloodhound. A majestic monumen- 
tal lion is as far removed as possible from the fierce 
writhing and struggling beasts of Rubens's mighty 
scenes of the Lion Hunt. There are fifteen of these 
wonderful pictures. The royal dignity of Landseer's 
Monarch of the Glen is in striking contrast to the 
tragic agony of the fallen hero in the Hunted Stag 




J . till Anlrow .1 Sill. S.- 



Mansell, Photo. 



MISS BOWLES 



I 



THE r^EV^^ YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOft. 



ANEVLVL PICTURES 89 

(National Gallery), while Rosa Bonheiir's beautiful 
Deer in the Forest (Metropolitan) shows the grace- 
ful creatures in peaceful home surroundings. The 
sleek, high-bred driving-horse standing at the forge 
in Landseer's picture is at opposite poles to Dagnan- 
Bouveret's strong, rough cart-horses at the watering- 
trough. These quieter types again differ from the 
mighty horses of Achilles rearing and plunging, which 
Automedon holds in check, in Regnault's painting at 
the Boston Art Museum — or the " flying horses" of 
Gericault's famous Derby (in the Louvre). Schrey- 
er's Arab horses are of a distinctive type, famiUar 
in many compositions. Rosa Bonheur's Horse Fair 
is a veritable equine panorama showing many types 
of the animal in different moods. Two well-known 
paintings in the Metropolitan Museum show con- 
trasting conditions in the life of the sheep: a flock 
peacefully grazing in the spring, by Mauve, and 
another caught in the fury of a snow-storm, by 
Auguste Schenck. The appealing weakness of baby 
animals is tenderly set forth by our William Morris 
Hunt, in the Belated Kid and Twin Lambs of the 
Boston Museum. It is a revelation in the life of the 
fox to see him in Winslow Homer's picture, Winter 
(Pennsylvania Academy), speeding over the field of 
drifted snow in his flight, chased by two great black 
crows. The two beautiful creatures ranging through 
the woods in Liljfors's painting (Buffalo) i)resent an- 
other and more peaceful phase of the animal's life. 
Paul Potter's famous Bull at the Hague is unique 
among art animals, even in the land of cattle painters, 



90 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

for the marvelous skill in which the creature's coat is 
reproduced and the character of his eye. 

For pictures of cattle in the surroundings of the 
farm we have had two notable schools of art, the 
Dutch and the French. In the seventeenth-century 
Dutch group belong Cuyp, Adrian van der Velde, 
Berchem, Paul Potter, Du Jardin, and Wouverman. 
Examples of these masters are in all the galleries of 
the Netherlands, and the more important pictures 
have been reproduced by the large foreign photog- 
raphers. The traditions of Dutch cattle painting 
have held their own in a remarkable way through the 
successive generations. The favorite animal is the 
cow, which a witty modern critic has described as the 
"omnipresent quadruped" of Dutch art, the "inex- 
haustible source of ideas re-created a hundred times, 
but always lending itself to fresh transformations." 
A group of nineteenth-century men have proved 
themselves worthy followers of the great seventeenth- 
century school. Conspicuous among them are Mauve 
and Maris. The Metropolitan has excellent examples 
of Mauve as well as of the Belgian Verboeckhoven. 

Pictures from modern French animal works are 
widely circulated. Nearly all of us are familiar with 
Rosa Bonheur's Ploughing in Nivernais, w^here the 
huge oxen, three yokes for each of the two ploughs, 
plod patiently across the field drawing the primitive 
implement which upturns the soil for the planting. 
Pretty well known, too, are Troyon's Oxen going to 
Work and the Return to the Farm, companion sub- 
jects in the Louvre. Emile Marcke was a pupil of 



ANIMAL PICTURES 91 

Troyon, and his cattle pictures show much the same 
method of treatment. There are examples in various 
American collections which are familiar in reproduc- 
tions. Dupre, who also belongs in this company, 
sometimes painted animal subjects; and still another 
member of the nineteenth-century French group was 
Charles Jacque, whose specialty was sheep. Pictures 
of sheep are very pleasing to children, and two favor- 
ites of the schoolroom and nursery are Millet's Shep- 
herdess and LeRolle's Shepherdess. The pig, though 
a familiar figure in nursery tales, is not often encoun- 
tered in the polite society of art, but George Mor- 
land's Midday Meal, in the Metropolitan Museum, is 
a pig picture w^orthy of admiration. 

As I have referred frequently to Landseer, some- 
thing should be said of the work of this famous animal 
painter. In the mid-nineteenth century he was the 
popular idol in England, admired equally at the court 
and among the common people. Engravings from his 
pictures carried his name and his art all around the 
world. Then came a reaction when critics began to 
scoff at his literary and anecdotic qualities, and com- 
pared him unfavorably with the new favorite, Rosa 
Bonheur. At the present time we can judge both 
painters more fairly and see their respective excel- 
lences. It is true that Landseer emphasized a dog's 
kinship with man rather than his characteristic ani- 
mal traits. Instead of showing the bloodhound in 
search of his prey, his nose to the trail, he repre- 
sented the noble creature waiting outside his wounded 
master's door in an agony of suspense. Instead of 



92 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

showing the Scotch collie at his proper business of 
keeping the flock within bounds, he represents him 
grief-stricken beside the shepherd's coffin. In such 
subjects as Dignity and Impudence, and Jack in 
Office, the dog assumes an almost human pose which 
appeals to the sense of humor as a sort of caricature. 
This naethod tends to sentimentalize and overhuman- 
ize the dog, instead of representing him in his true 
function in the animal kingdom. But even if we 
count out all the pictures in which the painter catered 
to the popular anecdotic taste, there still remain a 
sufficiently large number beyond such criticism, to 
give him high rank as an artist. His technical facility 
is above praise: he reproduced cleverly the texture of 
the hair and the brightness of the eye, and had a fine 
sense of pose. The deer was practically his original 
discovery. Studying this noble creature in the Scot- 
tish Highlands, he interpreted his life with great 
fidelity and sympathy. 

Rosa Bonheur's animal art covered a much larger 
range of subjects. She lived surrounded by a perfect 
menagerie of pets, ministering to them with touching 
devotion through their ailments and old age. Horses, 
dogs, cattle, deer, and lions were by turns her favor- 
ites, both as companions and art subjects. She knew 
the lion in every stage of his life from the soft cub, like 
the picture in Bowdoin College, to the old beast 
whose head was the model of "War." Though none 
knew better than she the friendly human side of all 
animals, she exercised admirable self-restraint in 
subordinating this element to the essential animal 



ANIMAL PICTURES 93 

nature. Her strong, sure technique is of high rank. 
There is nothing weak or effeminate in her style, but 
marked virility. Comparing her work with Land- 
seer's, I should say in a general way that his animal 
figures are more often in repose, and hers in action. 
Perhaps she was a bit overpraised merely because she 
was a woman. It was something new in the nine- 
teenth century for a woman to attain artistic distinc- 
tion, and still newer to enter a field regarded as dis- 
tinctively masculine. Her work, too, had the obvious 
qualities which make for popular favor, rather than 
the subtleties which appeal to the connoisseur. The 
very bigness of the Horse Fair and the Ploughing in 
Nivernais calls forth encomiums from the unsoi)his- 
ticated admirer. Severer critics find her lacking in 
the subtleties of modeling which Barye's work has 
taught us to look for, or in the dashing qualities of 
style and verve which Gericault exemplified. 

Another woman devoting herself to animal art was 
Henrietta Ronner, born in Holland, and living after 
marriage in Belgium. For the last thirty years of her 
life she specialized in cats, and was liberally patron- 
ized by royalty and people of wealth. In the nineties 
she published two beautiful books with reproductions 
of her pictures. These illustrated volumes and some 
scattered magazine articles are the only means the 
general American public has had of knowing the 
wonderful work of this cat artist. It is to be hoped 
that time will open these treasures to us all. Some 
popular cat pictures in wide circulation among the 
dealers are by Adam and Lambert. 



94 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

If we cannot get hold of reproductions of good ani- 
mal art, we can at least find photographs direct from 
life, and these are far better than copies of poor 
paintings, especially crudely colored lithographs. A 
poor color print is likely to be flat and wooden in 
effect, while the camera reproduces the delicate 
gradations of black and white which show the model- 
ing of the body. Good magazine illustrations supply 
us with much excellent material. The source of the 
picture is of little consequence, so long as we see to it 
that the animal represented is true to life. 

Reference Books: — 

John Van Dyke. Studies in Pictures. Chapter on the 

"Animal in Art." 
Sir Walter Gilbey. Animal Painters of England. 

London, 1900. 
Cosmo Monkhouse. Works of Sir Edwin Landseer, with 

a History of his Art Life. 
EsTELLE M. HuRLL. Landseer. In the Riverside Art 

Series. 
Rene Peyrol. Rosa Bonheur: Her Life and Work. 

London, 1889. 
Marius Vachon. Henriette Ronner, the Painter of Cat 

Life and Cat Character. Translated by Clara Bell, 1895. 
Max Rooses. Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth Century. 

Chapter on Henrietta Ronner. London, 1898. 

List of Animal Pictures 

Child with animal pet. 

Hoecker. Girl with Cat. (Dutch child with quaint cap.) 
Velasquez. Prince Baltasar Carlos on Pony. Madrid Gallery. 
Prince Baltasar Carlos (with hunting dogs). 
Madrid Gallery. 
Reynolds. Miss Bowles (and spaniel). Wallace Collection, 
London. 



ANIMAL PICTURES 9^ 

Reynolds. Princess Sophia (and poodU-). 

Lady Spencer and Sou (witli dop, in tlie park), 
Murillo. St. John the Baptist playing with the Lanih. 

Examples in the galleries of Vienna, Madrid, and 
the National Gallery, London. 
The Divine Shepherd. (Christ Child and lamb). 
Madrid Gallerv. 
William Morris Hunt. The Belated Kid. (Young girl carry- 
ing home the tired "baby.") Boston iVrt Museum. 

Cattle Subjects. 

Dutch. Seventeenth century. 

Cuvp. Landscape with cattle. Metropolitan Museum, New 

York. 
Landscape with cattle. Metropolitan Museum, New 

York. 
Paul Potter. The Young Bull. The Hague Gallery. 

Dutch. Nineteenth century. 

Mauve. Spring. Metropolitan Museum. 
Autumn. Metropolitan Museum. 
Sheep on the Dunes. Buffalo. 

French. Nineteenth century. 

Troyon. Oxen Going to Work. Louvre. 
Return to Farm. Louvre. 
Holland Cattle. Metropolitan Museum. 
On the Road. Metropolitan Museum. 
Schenck. Lost. (Sheep in storm.) Metropolitan Museum. 
Van Marcke. The Mill. Metropolitan Museum. 
Farm Scene. Corcoran Gallery. 
Herd. Pennsylvania Academy. 
The Water Gate. Layton Gallery, Milwaukee. 
Golden Autumn Day. Art Institute, Chicag j. 
Dupre. The Escaped Cow. 

The Drinking-Trough. 
Jacque. The Sheepfold. Metropolitan Museum. 
Feeding Sheep. Louvre. 
Pastoral. Buffalo. 

Miscellaneous animal subjects. 

William Morris Hunt. The Twin Lambs. Boston Art 
Museum. 



96 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Winslow Homer. The Fox. Pennsylvania Academy. 

Liljfors. Foxes. Buffalo. 

Gericault. The Derby. Louvre. 

Dagnan-Bouveret. At the Watering-Trough. (Cart-horse 

and driver.) 
Regnault. Horses of Achilles. Boston Art Museum. 
Schreyer. Halt in the Desert. 
On the March. 
Arab Scouts. 
Rubens. Lion Hunt. (Seven men, three horses, Hon and 
lioness.) Munich. 
Lion Hunt. Dresden Gallery. 

Landseer's subjects. 

The Newfoundland Dog. ("Distinguished Member of the. 
Humane Society.") 

Shoeing. 

My Dog. 

King Charles Spaniels (lying on table). National Gallery. 

Sleeping Bloodhound. 

Monarch of the Glen. (Deer.) 

The Challenge. (Deer.) 

The Sanctuary. (Deer.) 

Highland Shepherd's Chief Mourner. (Shepherd dog beside 
master's coflBn.) 

Suspense. (Bloodhound.) South Kensington Museum. 

Twa Dogs. South Kensington Museum. 

High Life and Low Life. (Bulldog and greyhound, compan- 
ion subjects in National Gallery of British Art, London.) 

The Nutcrackers. (Squirrels.) 

Rosa Bonheur's subjects. 

The Shepherd Dog. Wallace Collection, London. 

Flambeau. (Dog's head.) 

Deer in the Forest. Metropolitan Museum. 

Lion Cub. Bowdoin College. 

Peace. (Head of horse.) 

War. (Head of old lion.) 

Ploughing in Nivernais. Luxembourg, Paris. 

Horse Fair. Metropolitan Museum. 

Haymaking in Auvergne. Luxembourg. 

Brittany Sheep. 

Sheep of Berry. 



IX 

PICTURES OF CHILDREN 

A WISE mother is glad to have her child enjoy the 
companionship of other children. It makes for nor- 
mal development that he should mingle with others 
of his own age in the home, in the school, and at his 
play. And it is simply an extension of the same prin- 
ciple that his first books and pictures are about chil- 
dren. Every little boy or girl he meets or hears about 
is interesting to him, and he welcomes a picture child 
as a new friend. Among very little ones, pictures of 
boys or girls are equally enjoyed, but the time soon 
comes when boys naturally take to their own kind 
and girls to theirs. We can hardly surfeit them with 
this class of subjects, and indeed no grown-up with a 
heart for children ever tires of good art of this sort. 
The popularity of such subjects is seen in the im- 
mense output of advertising material adorned with 
child pictures. Many of these reproduce photo- 
graphs of real babies, and are by no means to be 
despised. Much of the artistic modern photography 
compares favorably with high art. Nevertheless, our 
repertory should not be wholly supplied from this 
source. It is desirable for the child's all-around edu- 
cation that his art world be peopled with children of 
many periods and nationalities. In the embarrass- 
ment of riches which are available for this purpose 



98 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

the classified descriptive list at the close of this chap- 
ter will help mothers and teachers to make wise selec- 
tions. The pictures referred to have been tested by- 
much practical experience and found attractive and 
interesting to children. 

Technically the picture of a child is a far more diflS- 
cult achievement than that of an adult. When the 
Italian primitives were struggling with the problems 
of the human figure they represented children as min- 
iature grown-ups. The Christ-child in the arms of his 
mother, as old Cimabue and Giotto painted him, is a 
good deal like a doll. The real live baby was not born 
into the world of art till a much later date. Indeed, 
the very young baby has never been a common art 
subject, for the painter has naturally preferred the 
more attractive stages of childhood. 

An inexhaustible storehouse of child pictures, as all 
the world knows, is that vast body of works to which 
we apply the Italian name "Madonna," because it 
was in Italy that the subject had complete historical 
development. It represents Mary, the mother of 
Jesus, with the Christ-child in her arms, and was the 
first artistic effort of the Christian era to portray 
childhood. The theme makes an instantaneous ap- 
peal to children of all ages, and will never outgrow 
popular favor. In making selections for our children, 
we do well to avoid the archaic paintings of the early 
centuries and all the more formal altar pieces, looking 
first for the elements of human interest and childish 
affection. The simplest compositions are best. From 
the great Renaissance Italians the best beloved mas- 



PICTURES OF CIIILDRExN 99 

ters are Andrea del Sarto, Raphael, Correg^io, Luiiii, 
Bellini, and Titian. The German Holbein's Clever 
Madonna also belongs in this period. From the 
seventeenth-century names I would add those of 
Carlo Dolce (with discrimination), Murillo (Si)anisli), 
and the two great Flemings, Rubens and Van Dyck 
All these men understood well the representation of 
innocent, happy childhood. There are also many 
excellent modern Madonna pictures in the art stores 
by Gabriel Max, Bodenhausen, Dagnan-Bouveret. 
Sichel, Ferrari, and others. 

The children's special favorites among Raphael's 
works are the Madonna of the Chair and the Sistine 
Madonna. In innumerable schoolrooms all over the 
land hangs one or the other of these two pictures. 
Many stories are told by the teachers of the benefi- 
cent influence of these noble ideals of motherhood and 
childhood upon pupils of every race and creed. Such 
subjects may be considered entirely apart from their 
original ecclesiastical significance as a universal type 
of the tenderest of human relations. I heard of a 
young high-school girl, obliged to give up her course 
because of tuberculosis, who talked constantly of the 
beautiful picture which hung in the schoolroom. The 
mother found upon inquiry that it was the Sistine 
Madonna, a copy was procured, and the girl's last 
days were made happier by the gracious presence in 
her sick-room. 

The two great Raphaels illustrate a contrast in 
motive wdiich a child is quick to grasp. The child nf 
the Chair Madonna nestles in his mother's proteclii^g 



> 



100 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

arms, seeking shelter from danger, but the Sistine boy 
is Hke a Httle prince who is thinking of his people, 
and is setting forth to help the world. In the chil- 
dren's phrase one is "babyish," and the other 
"manly." I call the Chair Madonna the "Madonna 
of Love," and the Sistine, the "Madonna of Service." 
The central portion of the Sistine Madonna makes a 
picture complete in itself. In fact many of the most 
attractive Madonna subjects are made in this way, 
by photographing the central detail in a separate 
print. 

A subject closely akin to the Madonna and Child is 
Charity, a symbolic expression of that all-embracing 
spirit of love which gathers the children of the world 
in its care. A noble group by Andrea del Sarto treats 
this subject as a motherly woman seated, with a child 
at her breast, another on her knee, and another at her 
feet. Burne-Jones made a tall, narrow panel of Char- 
ity standing with a baby on each arm and four chil- 
dren at her feet. Abbot Thayer's painting in the Bos- 
ton Art Museum is a third well-known example. 
Here Charity extends both arms as if to shelter all 
children beneath them, and two little ones stand at 
her feet nestling against her sides. Such pictures are 
admirably adapted to the nursery and the lower grade 
schoolroom. And perhaps here, better than anywhere 
else, should be mentioned that beautiful picture of 
kindred theme, Murillo's Guardian Angel. 

The Holy Family is an enlargement of the Ma* 
donna subject by the introduction of other figures. 
A pleasant fancy of the old masters was to represent 



» »-- 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 101 

the little St. John Baptist, cousin of Jesus, as a play- 
mate of the holy child. Here are endless possihihlics 
of story interest for a child's delight. An effective 
contrast is made between the swarthy, skin-dad 
Baptist and the fair-haired Christ-child. The sturdy 
St. John is the most affectionate slave of his cousin, 
bringing offerings of fruit and flowers or kneeling in 
adoration. Raphael was particularly felicitous in this 
subject, and examples are numerous also among his 
contemporaries. Single ideal portraits of either of the 
two boys are not very common, but are treasures 
worth picking up when they are to be found. Andrea 
del Sarto's St. John Baptist, the boy, is an excep- 
tional picture, and a great favorite. Murillo's so- 
called Children of the Shell is a delicately conceived 
subject of the relation between the two cousins. They 
have been playing together with the lamb, when St. 
John becomes thirsty, and the Christ-child offers him 
to drink from a shell. 

The several striking incidents of the infancy of 
Jesus have all been very often illustrated, and form a 
series of delightful pictures of child life. The })irth in 
the Bethlehem manger, the visit of the shepherds to 
the newborn babe, the coming of the wise men with 
their Oriental gifts, the presentation of the babe in 
the Temple, the flight into Egypt, and the visit of 
the twelve-year-old boy in the Temple, have been 
made vivid by the art of many centuries. In choosing 
such pictures we must be careful to see that artistic 
beauty is united with good illustrative (juality. It 
must be understood that none of the great painters of 



102 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

the past made any attempt to represent Bible scenes 
with historical accuracy. They knew and cared 
nothing about the customs and topography of Pales- 
tine in the first century. Happily, however, our chil- 
dren have no archaeological prejudices. Their interest 
centers upon the babe, who lies serenely on his bed of 
straw in the company of the ox and the ass, who 
receives his first gifts with eager delight, who is borne 
in his mother's arms on their long donkey ride into a 
far country, and who later discusses gravely with the 
gray -beards of the Temple the great volume of the 
Scriptures. 

Another class of attractive child pictures emanat- 
ing from the old masters is the joyous company of 
angels who figure so conspicuously in religious com- 
positions. They fill the heavenly spaces with their 
choirs and make music before the Madonna's throne. 
They sport playfully in the clouds or make themselves 
useful on the earth, companions and playmates of 
the Christ-child, or attendants upon sacred person- 
ages. And always, whether praying, adoring, singing, 
serving, they are the perfect embodiment of the 
eternal child spirit. Correggio is easily first in this 
peculiar field, as the creator of the most fascinating 
elflike sprites, bubbling over with mischief. The same 
elfin creature is by turns angel or cupid, playing with 
the helmet and sword of St. George, or sharpening an 
arrow by the couch of Danae. 

The child angel as a musician belongs especially to 
the Venetian art, placed at the bottom of a formal 
altar piece. Some of the best-loved figures of painting 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 103 

are these artless little creatures, bending over lute or 
violin with complete absorption. BeUini, Pahna, and 
Carpaccio contributed some winsome examples. A 
few of the Florentines — notably Raphael and Barto- 
lommeo — and the Bolognese Francia adopted the 
Venetian idea with characteristic variations. Other 
baby figures, or "putti," for all sorts of decorative 
purposes, are scattered freely through Italian Renais- 
sance painting, carrying banderoles or cartouches, 
supporting pedestals or medallions. In the limited 
repertory of subjects in this period, these child ideals 
formed a sort of outlet for the artist's playful fancy. 
Turning from these ideal child subjects of past cen- 
turies to the field of portrait painting, we find that 
real portraits of real children constitute a very inter- 
esting and attractive class of pictures for the little 
ones in our schools and homes. They make the home 
life of historic periods more vivid to us, they teach us 
how the boys and girls of olden times dressed, and, 
most of all, they show us that child nature is the same 
in all ages. With what wonder and curiosity do we 
gaze upon the monstrous skirts, the long, stift* corsets, 
and the elaborate finery which burdened little royalty 
of long ago. But that babies of four hundred years 
back played with rattles as they do now, and that 
children frolicked with pet dogs and clung to their 
mothers' knees, unites the past and the present very 
closely. Sometimes we come unexpectedly upon a 
style of dress which seems quite familiar — a plumed 
hat, a jaunty cap, a broad lace collar, a "Dutch cut" 
of hair, a "Russian blouse." The picture of a child 



104 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

elicits the prompt demand for information about the 
original — where does he live, what is his name, etc. 
We must take pains to answer such questions intel- 
ligently and consistently. If we cannot learn much of 
the pictured child's real story, we may at least place 
definitely the nationality, the period, and the social 
class, so to speak, while the face tells us something of 
the particular temperament. A little experience 
makes us adept in the art of inference and teaches us 
to note every detail which may give the clue to the 
child's character. When a historical personage is 
represented, we have plenty of interesting material 
to connect with the portrait. 

Child portraits were rare articles in the Italian 
Renaissance, but of course we all know that there is 
no rule without exception. Now and again some 
painter — Ghirlandajo, Botticelli, Pinturicchio — 
pleased himself by turning off the portrait of a boy or 
girl whose face had caught his fancy. Occasionally a 
fond parent, like the great Duchess Isabella d'Este 
or a Medici prince, gave an order for the likeness of a 
beloved child. We can count these exceptional pic- 
tures on the fingers, but they are precious enough to 
cherish both for their artistic and historic value. 

With the great portrait schools of the seventeenth 
century the child came into his rightful art place. 
From this time forward children's pictures occupy 
their proper proportion in the total product of any 
period and school of art. But with all this abundance 
of material one can never choose a child's picture at 
random. It is not given to all in equal measure to 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 105 

understand the heart of a child. There is a certain 
touchstone of sympathetic imagination by which we 
must test the essential quality of the pictures. To 
begin with, let us look for something better than mere 
doll-like superficial prettiness. The child need not be 
pretty to be interesting or attractive. Just a plain 
little everyday kind of girl who looks like a nice play- 
mate, or a jolly good-natured sort of boy who is 
ready for any fun, makes the most delightful picture. 
A self-conscious, artificial child is as undesirable in a 
picture as in real life, and that artist is most success- 
ful whose work is most simple and natural. This is 
why Velasquez is so great, and Greuze often so weak, 
and Van Dyck so uneven. Where in the world of art 
can you match the simple babyish gravity of the in- 
fant Baltasar (Boston Art Museum), the pathetic 
timidity of Maria Theresa, or the sweet shyness of the 
Princess Margaret? Velasquez was free from the 
common fault of overmodeling the child's face, paint- 
ing only what he saw. Never straining after effects, 
his perfect self-restraint was an element of his suc- 
cess. All their absurd and gorgeous court costumes 
cannot hide the true child nature of the little Spanish 
royalties. 

Now the young girls of Greuze, with all their pret- 
tiness, are not really natural. They are consciously 
posing for your admiration. And as you come to look 
at them the second time, you see that they are not so 
young as they seem to be. Some of them are only 
make-believe little girls, with arch smiles. Even the 
charming maiden of the Broken Pitcher, so carefully 



106 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

made up with a rose in her hair and a nosegay in her 
corsage, is not quite convincing. While the picture 
has some fine quaHties, the motive lacks sincerity and 
spontaneity, and I for one would give a good deal 
more for the wistful child with the apple in the Lon- 
don Gallery. Associated in our thoughts with the 
name of Greuze is that of Madame Le Brun, who 
began her art career by copying Greuze's heads. She 
was, however, more sincere, if less gifted, than he, and 
she added something to the treasures of child por- 
traiture in the charming pictures of her little daugh- 
ter. The Mother and Daughter in the Louvre is a fine 
and deservedly popular work. 

The child portraiture of Van Dyck is always sincere 
and serious, but the posing and grouping are not 
uniformly natural. The oft-repeated children of 
Charles I stand in rather stiff and uncompromising 
rows, but any such faults are forgotten for the splen- 
did artistic qualities of the work. The heads are 
beautifully done and make complete separate pic- 
tures, particularly Prince Charles, and the inimitable 
"Baby James," the Duke of York, in his little bonnet. 
Princess Mary is a bit too prim to be really childlike. 
My own favorites among Van Dyck's child figures 
belong to the earlier periods when his inspiration had 
not lost its freshness, like the White Boy of the Dur- 
azzo Palace in Genoa, souvenir of his youthful Italian 
journey, and Richardot and his son,^ from the Flemish 
groups. The child portraits of Cornelis de Vos should 

* An illustration in the volume on Van Dyck in the Riverside Art 
Series. 




Painted by Van Dyck. 



John An>lr«« i S«d, B«. 



CHARLES, PRINCE OF WALES 
Royal Gallery, Turin 



THE l^V '■^' 

IPUBLIC 






PICTURES OF CHILDREN 107 

be classed with those of Van Dyck, whose contem- 
porary he was, and whose skill he closely rivaled. 
They represent his own engaging little daughters. 
The Dutch schools of the same day furnish us many 
valuable examples of the subtle art of child portrait- 
ure. It was a fashion there for well-to-do merchants 
to have group pictures painted of the entire family. 
From this custom we see in the galleries a wonderful 
array of these pictures showing well the solidarity of 
the Dutch home life. It goes without saying that 
Dutch children are always chubby and rosy, and the 
soberness of their costume gives them an air of quaint 
gravity. Besides the more common or typical works, 
we have a few priceless gems which every child-lover 
values. 

It was the glory of the English eighteenth-century 
art to develop the beauty of womanhood and child- 
hood, and from this school came forth a host of pic- 
ture children to delight the world. A characteristic 
quality is their animation. Contrasted with the staid 
and quiet figures of the little Italians, Spaniards, and 
Flemings of the previous centuries these English 
young folk are sparkling with life and gayety. In 
attitude, gesture, and expression we get the whole 
story of the child's individual temperament. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds was the head of the School. He was 
one of those rare spirits who win the complete con- 
fidence of a child. He was their boon companion, and 
while he romped with them as a playmate, his keen 
artist's eye noted their qualities as models. Delightful 
stories are told of that great octagonal room in Lei- 



108 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

cester Square from which proceeded such shouts of 
laughter that none could have dreamed it was a 
painter's studio. From this enchanted castle were 
sent many masterpieces which have made the youth- 
ful originals household names, like Penelope Boothby 
and Miss Bowles. Not content with filling a multi- 
tude of orders, the painter seized every opportunity 
to make ideal or "fancy" subjects of children for his 
own amusement, using his little niece and grandniece 
as models. It is thus that we have the Strawberry 
Girl, the Age of Innocence, Simplicity, and Little 
Samuel. Gainsborough, like Van Dyck, inclined to 
the more poetic and serious aspects of child life, and 
therefore does not so readily win a child's attention. 
But the Blue Boy should be introduced to all our 
children as a notable work of art, and no one can fail 
to respond to the intimate charm of his expression. 
The works of the lesser painters of the English school, 
Romney, Opie, Hoppner, and Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
have not been widely enough reproduced to become 
familiar to the general public. But little by little, as 
they find their way to large collections, we may hope 
to add to our knowledge of this marvelous setting- 
forth of child life in its happiest and most wholesome 
vein. 

When we come down to our own period in our art 
study, our troubles increase, as we try to collect 
reproductions of some modern masterpieces of child 
portraiture. Costly copyrighted photographs we 
cannot all possess, but we derive such satisfaction as 
we may from poring over chance cuts in magazines 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 109 

and expensive illustrated books. Through these 
sources we learn how many children's j)icturcs were 
made by the French Bouguereau and Boutet de 
Monvel, the English Sir John Millais and Burne- 
Jones. A few good contemporary pictures, like Shan- 
non's Miss Kitty and Mr. Chase's Alice, are scattered 
through our American public collections, and are 
rapidly becoming known through the efforts of art 
dealers. 

And now for our lists : — 

List of Pictures of Children 

Madonna subjects. 

Raphael. Madonna of the Diadem. Louvre, Paris. (Baby 
asleep.) 
Granduca Madonna. Pitti Gallery, Florence. 
Tempi Madonna. Munich. 
Chair Madonna. Pitti Gallery, Florence. 
Sistine Madonna, Dresden Gallerv. 
Correggio. Madonna with Angels. Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

Kneeling Madonna. Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 
Andrea del Sarto. Madonna of the Harpies. (So called from 
decoration of pedestal.) Uffizi Gallery, Flor- 
ence. (Detail of mother and child.) 
Botticelli. Madonna. Louvre, Paris. 
Filippo Lippi. Madonna. Uffizi. (Mother seated, and 

angels holding babe.) 
Perugino. Kneeling Madonna. National Gallery, London. 

(Central panel of triptych.) 
Luini. Madonna of the Rose Hedge. Brera, ^filan. 

Madonna at Lugano. (Lunette. Christ-child playing 
with lamb, little St. John on other side.) 
Bellini. Madonna of Two Trees. Venice Academy. 

Madonna and Child. National Gallery. 
Titian. Pesaro Madonna. Church of Frari, Venice. (Detail 
of mother and child.) 
Madonna of Rabbit. National Gallery. 
Giorgione. Madonna. Castelfranco, near Venice. 



no HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Palma. Madonna and Saints. Dresden. 
Moretto. Madonna and St. Nicholas. Brescia. (Unique 
and charming. The old saint introduces two 
little boys to the Christ-child, two others follow- 
ing him.) 
Carlo Dolce. Madonna. Dresden. (Child asleep.) 

Madonna. Pitti Gallery, Florence. (Child 
standing on mother's knee.) 
Holbein. Meyer Madonna. Dresden Gallery. 
Murillo. Madonna. Pitti Gallery, Florence. 
Madonna. Corsini Gallery, Rome. 
Van Dyck. Presepio. Corsini, Rome. 

The Holy Family. 

Raphael. Cardellino Madonna (Madonna of Goldfinch). 
Uffizi, Florence. (Mother with two children in 
landscape; St. John bringing goldfinch.) 
Madonna of the Meadow. Vienna. (Mother and 

the two children in landscape.) 
Belle Jardiniere. Louvre. (Mother with two 

children in landscape.) 
Madonna dell' Impannata. Pitti. (Two mothers, 

Mary and Elizabeth, with the two children.) 
Madonna of the Pearl. Madrid. (Four figures as 
above. Full of joyous domestic feeling.) 
Pinturicchio. Holy Family. Siena Gallery. (Landscape. 
Mary and Joseph seated. The two children 
running across meadow to draw water from 
fountain. The children's figures are photo- 
graphed separately.) 
Titian. Madonna of the Cherries. Vienna. (Mother with 
the two children. St. Jolm bringing fruit.) 
Madonna with St. Anthony. UflSzi. (Mother with 
two children. St. John bringing flowers.) 
Luini. Holy Family. Ambrosian Gallery. Milan. (Two 
mothers, Mary and Elizabeth, with the children.) 
Andrea del Sarto. Holy Family. Two pictures in the Pitti, 

Florence. 
Knaus. Holy Family. Metropolitan, New York. (Little 
angel peeping at babe in mother's lap. Joseph oQ 
donkey in rear.^ 
Rubens. Holy Family. Pitti, Florence. 



PICTURES OF CmLDREN HI 

Van Dyck. Holy Family. Turin. (Two mothers and 
St. Joseph. Christ-child eagerly springing 
toward St. John.) 

Nativity. 

Correggio. Holy Night. Dresden. 
Luini. Nativity. Louvre. 

Nativity. Como Cathedral. 
Lorenzo di Credi. Adoration of Shepherds. UfRzi, Florence. 
Lorenzo Lotto. Adoration of Shepherds. Brescia. 
Murillo. Adoration of Shepherds. Madrid Gallery. 
LeRolle. Arrival of Shepherds. 
Burne-Jones. Nativity. Torquay. 

Adoration of Kings (or Magi.) 

Ghirlandajo. Foundling Hospital, Florence. 
Gentile da Fabriano. Florence Academy. 
Burne-Jones. Star of Bethlehem. Oxford, England, 

Flight into Egypt. 

Holman Hunt. Triumph of Innocents. (Circle of angels 

dancing about wayfarers.) 
Correggio. Madonna della Scodella. Parma Gallery. 

(Mother dipping water from pool and St. 

Joseph plucking dates for Christ-child.) 

Presentation in Temple. 

Bartolommeo. Vienna. (Group of five figures, the aged 

Simeon holding the Christ-child.) 

Christ among Doctors. 

Holman Hunt. (Interior of Temple with many figures, 

Mary just discovering the lost child.) 
Hoffman. (Group of six figures in three-quarter length. 
Boy Christ pointing to Scriptures.) 

Child Angels. 

As parts of compositions. 

Botticein. In the Incoronata, Uffizi, Florence. (Holding 
crown of stars over Madonna's head, and su[>- 
porting her writing materials for inscribing the 
Magnificat.) 



112 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

Filippino Lippi. In Holy Family, Pitti, Florence. (Adoring 

and scattering rose petals over child who 
lies on the ground.) 
In The Vision of St. Bernard, Church of 
the Badia, Florence. (Four attendants of 
Virgin. One with folded hands is photo- 
graphed separately.) 
Leonardo da Vinci. In the Baptism by Verrochio, Florence 

Academy. (Two kneeling attend- 
ants. Photographed separately.) 
Titian. In the Assumption. Venice Academy. (Angelic 
throng upbearing ascending Virgin. Some groups 
photographed separately.) 
Correggio. In frescoes in dome of Church of St. John Evan- 
gelist, Parma. 
In ceiling decoration in Convent of S. Paolo, 
Parma. (Bearing implements of chase, to 
accompany Diana. Each figure in a medallion, 
photographed as separate picture.) 
Murillo. In Immaculate Conception, Louvre, Paris. (An- 
gelic throng upbearing Virgin.) 
Van Dyck. Repose in Egypt. Pitti, Florence. (Circle of 
baby angels dancing to entertain Christ- 
child.) 
Raphael. In Sistine Madonna, Dresden. (Two cherub heads 
at bottom of picture.) 
In Foligno Madonna. Vatican Gallery. (Cherub 

holding cartouche at bottom of picture.) 
In Jurisprudence fresco, Vatican, Rome. (Cherub 

in right corner.) 
In Fresco of Sibyls, S. Maria della Pace, Rome. 
(Cherub.) 

As separate pictures. 

Rubens. Vienna Gallery. (Angels playing with Christ-child 
and lamb.) 
Munich Gallery. (Angels playing with garland of 
flowers.) 
Rosso Fiorentino. Uffizi, Florence. (Angel with guitar.) 
Andrea del Sarto. Florence Academy. (Two angels with 

scroll.) 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 113 

Musical child angels in altar pieces, photographed as separate 
figures.^ 

Bellini. In Frari Madonna, Venice. (Lute-player. Flute- 
player.) 
Vivarini. In Redentore Madonna, Venice. (Two baby lute- 
players.) 
Carpaccio. In Presentation. Venice Academy. (Lute- 
player.) 
Palma. In Madonna enthroned. Vicenza. (Violinist.) 
Raphael. In Baldacchino Madonna, Pitti, Florence. (Two 

choristers.) 
Bartolommeo. In Marriage of St. Catherine. Florence. 

(Guitar-player and violinist.) 
Francia. In Madonna of S. Giacomo, Bologna. (Two girl 
musicians.) 

Child portraits. 

Italian Renaissance. 

Pinturicchio. Dresden Gallery. (Boy. Bust.) 
Ghirlandajo. Louvre. (Old man and little child.) 
Francia. Federigo Gonzaga. Bust. Altman Collection, 
New York. (The boy was son of Isabella d'Este 
and the Duke of Mantua.) 
Morone. Bergamo Gallery. (Little girl. Bust.) 
Paris Bordone. Uffizi Gallery. (Bust of boy with plumed 

hat.) 
Baroccio. Prince of Urbino. Pitti, Florence. (Baby in 

cradle.) 
Tiberio Titi. Prince Leopold de' Medici. Pitti. (A baby.) 
Bronzino. Don Garcia. UflSzi. (Fat baby boy with bird.) 

Princess Mary. Uffizi. (Prim little girl.) 
Titian. Lavinia. Berlin Gallery. 

Flemish. Seventeenth century. 

Rubens. Two sons. Vienna Gallery. (Full-length figures in 

rich costumes.) 
Van Dyck. Children of Charles I. 

Group of three (full length). Turin Gallery. 
(The group from which the separate heads 

^ La Farge's Suonatore in the Worcester Art Museum is a beautiful 
picture inspired by the musical angels of the old iLaliau altar piccua. 



114 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

are taken, Charles, Mary, and Baby James.) 
Group of three (full length) . Dresden Gallery. 
Group of five. Berlin Gallery. 
Princess Mary and Prince William (her 
fiance). Amsterdam. 

Prince W'illiam of Nassau. St. Petersburg. 
Cornelis de Vos. Baby. Antwerp. (In high chair with toys.) 

Two little daughters. Berlin Gallery. 
(Children richly dressed seated on floor. 
Bewitching.) 

Dutch. Seventeenth century. 

Cuyp. Boy's head. (W^earing broad-brimmed hat.) 
Maes. Boy with haw^k. Wallace Collection, London. 
Frans Hals. Ilpenstein Baby. Berlin Gallery. (Richly 
dressed baby bubbling over with laughter. 
In arms of nurse.) 
Moreelse. Princess. Amsterdam. (Half-length; dressed in 

stiff corset.) 
Terburg. Helen van Schalke. Amsterdam. (Cabinet pic- 
ture. Full-length figure. Dressed like a Quaker 
lady with reticule over arm. Very quaint.) 
Ver Meer. Girl's head. Hague. (Wearing turban. Wonder- 
ful light on face.) 
Lirens. Portrait of Boy. Berlin. 

Spanish, Seventeenth century. 

Velasquez. Princess Margaret. Louvre. (Bust.) 

Las Meninas. Madrid Gallery. (Interior with 
little Princess Margaret in center, surrounded 
by attendants.) 

Princess Margaret. Vienna Gallery. (Full- 
length figure similar to that in Las Meninas.) 

Princess Maria Theresa. Madrid Gallery. 

Prince Baltasar Carlos on his Pony. Madrid 
Gallery. 

Prince Baltasar Carlos (with hunting dog) . Mad- 
rid Gallerv. 

Prince Baltasar Carlos (with dwarf). Boston Art 
Museum. 
Murillo. Boy at window. National Gallery, London. 



PICTURES OF CHILDREN 115 

French. 

Greuze. Broken Pitcher. Louvre, Paris. 

Child with apple. National Gallery, London. 
Girl with Iamb. National Gallery, London. 
Innocence. Wallace Collection, Lcjndori. (Girl 
with lamb.) 
Mme. Le Brun. Madame Le Brun and her Daughter. 

Louvre. 
Girl with muff. Louvre. 
Head of daughter. Bologna Gallery. 
Fragonard. Head of child. Wallace Collection, London. 

English, Eighteenth century. 

Reynolds. Angel heads. National Gallery. 

Age of Innocence. National Gallery. 
Infant Samuel. National Gallery. 
Lady Cockburn and children. National Gallery. 
Duchess of Devonshire and baby. 
Lady Spencer and son. 
Simplicity. 

Miss Bowles. Wallace Collection, London. 
Strawberry Girl. Wallace Collection, London. 
Penelope Boothby. 
Gainsborough. Blue Boy. (Two versions. One at Grosve- 

nor House, London. The otiier in collec- 
tion of Mr. Hearn, from whicli reproduc- 
tions have been made. Full-length figure 
in landscape. Dressed in blue satin.) 
Eliza Linley and brother. Morgan Collec- 
tion, New York. 
Romney. Gower children. (Four little girls dancing in a 

circle. Tall girl striking tambourine.) 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. Calmady children. (Two children's 

heads in circular composition, 
sometimes called "Nature.") 

Miscellaneous. 

Manet. Boy with sword. Metropolitan Museum. (Full- 
length.) 
Sully. Boy with torn hat. Boston Art Museum. (Bust.) 
Whistler. Rose of Lyme. Boston Art Museum. (Half- 
length of little girl.) 



116 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Sargent. Boit children, Boston Art Museum. (Interior with 
three children.) 
Carnation Lily, Lily Rose. (Two little girls in 
garden lighting Japanese lanterns.) 
Burne-Jones. Dorothy Drew. (Full-length figure of little 

girl seated.) 
Shannon. Miss Kitty. Pittsburg. (Full length.) 
William M. Chase. Alice. Chicago Art Institute. 
Frank Benson. My Daughter. (Bust portrait.) 
Bouguereau. Sister and brother. 

The Broken Pitcher. 
George de Forest Brush. Mother and child. Boston Art 

Museum. 

Reference Books: — 

Alice Meynell: Children of the Old Masters: Italian 

Schools. London, 1903. 

A quarto volume with fifty-six beautiful plates. An 

essay in nine sections, covering about seventy pages 

and discussing the old Italian interpretation of child 

life, with some emphasis on the work of the Tuscan 

sculptors. 
LoRiNDA MuNSEN Bryant. Famous Pictures of Real 

Boys and Girls. London, 1912. 

Arranged by countries: Italy, Spain, Germany, 

Holland, Belgium, France, England, and America. 



STORY PICTURES 

A child's love of stories is well-nigh universal, and 
no argument is needed to prove the value of gratify- 
ing this taste. Whether it is regarded from an educa- 
tional standpoint, as a training for the mind, or 
merely taken for pure amusement, the story is the 
child's natural pabulum. How pictures may facili- 
tate and enrich the story-telling process I have tried 
to explain in a previous chapter. It remains to make 
some suggestions in regard to story-picture material. 
For as there are stories and stories, some good for 
children, and some not, so there are pictures and 
pictures, from which to choose. Some subjects at- 
tract a child at once, and others make no impression 
on him. Some which appeal to him with an obvious 
story interest may be wretched specimens on the 
artistic or mechanical side. Some which interest an 
older person very much, deal with themes which a 
child is incapable of grasping. Worst of all, some 
have an unwholesome or artificial, sentimental or 
silly, story to tell. On the whole, it is much better to 
have a few good things than many inferior prints. 

In one sense any and every picture is a story pic- 
ture. An active imagination may weave a drama out 
of the most meager material. The figure of an animal, 
Landseer's Newfoundland Dog, let us say, may sug- 



118 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

gest all sorts of exploits to form an endless tale. A 
portrait, like the head of Van Dyck's Prince Charles, 
may be the starting-point of the life-story of the 
Merry Monarch. This story use of the picture is 
perfectly legitimate, but it is not the original inten- 
tion of the artist. A real story picture differs from 
one upon which a story may be based as the Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds differs from a simple Madonna, 
or Boughton's Pilgrims going to Church from Stuart's 
portrait of George Washington. The real story pic- 
ture is dramatic in character and contains a story by 
implication, the story the artist meant to tell, and to 
draw this out is quite another matter than building 
one of our own upon a picture not designed for the 
purpose. The line cannot be rigidly drawn, but it 
seems to me well to keep the distinction clearly in 
mind. We do not want to fix the "literary habit" 
upon a child so that every picture necessarily means 
a story to him. In a real story or anecdotic picture, 
the position or action of the figures and the acces- 
sories of the composition all point out a story, and if 
the artist has done his part, we ought to read it 
easily. 

The first story subjects we give our children are 
naturally those dealing with child life. We begin by 
looking for pictures illustrating the doings of the 
average boy and girl in the home, with his playmates, 
and in the great outdoor world. Few artists have in 
any sense specialized in these lines, and w^e pick up 
our material among scattered examples from many 
countries and many periods. The most satisfactory 




Fr. liaofataeDo'i, pLoto. 



John AD'Jrt" k S>D, Sc. 



THE FRUIT VENDERS 
Munich Gallery 




^8Tf 



STORY PICTURES 119 

pictures of this sort are general and typical in char- 
acter rather than local in interest. The good oKl 
stories which have been retold from time immemorial 
retain their hold upon us because they deal with the 
typical elements of human nature and chikl life. 
They have no local color to fix the time and phice. 
So with story pictures. If they reach the heart of 
child life, they last forever, but if they depend too 
much upon transient elements, the next generation 
will not understand them. I can best explain my 
meaning by illustrations. About three hundred years 
ago the Spanish artist Murillo painted some groujjs 
of beggar boys playing in the street. They were 
ragged and unkempt, not particularly pretty and not 
over-clean, but they were full of the joy of life. 
Happy-go-lucky as the birds of the air, they are feast- 
ing on melons and grapes, and kings of the eartli 
might envy them. There are at least eight of these 
subjects, the best-known being the group in the 
Munich Gallery, and they are among the most popu- 
lar and delightful pictures in the world. Though 
painted three centuries ago in Seville, you can find 
their counterparts to-day in the streets of New York, 
or Boston, or Chicago. To the end of time boys will 
flock together to loaf in the sun, devour stolen fruit, 
and play games on the ground. Murillo's pictures 
will never need explanation and will never go by. 
Now many story pictures which seem very funny and 
clever at first sight lose their interest as time passes, 
because the details are too definitely localized. In the 
latter part of the nineteenth century there were vari- 



120 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

ous painters whose works had great vogue, but which 
are already going out of fashion. Meyer von Bre- 
men's pictures of Swiss child life and J. G. Brown's of 
New York newsboys and bootblacks are of this class. 
They deal with local customs which are already 
passing. We speak of them as "old-fashioned"; but 
it never occurs to anybody to call the Spanish Beggar 
Boys old-fashioned. Fashion has nothing to do with 
them. Nor does the seventeenth-century setting 
prevent our enjoyment of the merrymaking in some 
of Jan Steen's Dutch pictures. This painter did more 
children's subjects than seems to be generally known. 
We debar, of course, any which are coarse in vein, but 
scenes of simple hilarity, even if it is of a boisterous 
kind, are good to have. Steen's contemporary, Peter 
de Hooch, is at opposite poles in his choice of sub- 
jects, gentle, quiet, refined, and poetic. His demure 
little girls helping their mothers about the housework 
are the pattern of dutifulness. One can scarcely 
imagine them doing anything naughty, but they are 
not too prim to be thoroughly childlike and lovable. 
Among modern painters the French Millet and the 
Dutch Israels seem to me the most natural and spon- 
taneous in their delineations of children's occupations 
and amusements. In fact, the doings of country 
children seem to make a wider appeal than city sub- 
jects. It would be foolish to insist that a child's pic- 
tures should be only those which have stood the test 
of years. As well give up all magazines and news- 
papers. It is well, however, to keep in mind the differ- 
ence between the permanent and the transient. The 



STORY PICTURES 121 

pictures which we select as birthday and Christmas 
gifts for our little ones, pictures to keep as special 
treasures, should be of the higher order. For the rest 
we hail gladly any child pictures with good drawing, 
good story interest, and a natural rather than an arti- 
ficial or forced situation. 

To limit a child's story pictures to subjects of child 
life would be a mistake which no wise educator is 
likely to make. It would be like shutting him up in a 
Lilliputian kingdom. We must help our chihlren to 
grow up, and pictures are an invaluable means to this 
end. They should open to the young mind many 
avenues of thought and enjoyment. They may reflect 
the life of the workaday world about us, make the 
past vivid, or awaken visions of the fairyland of 
fancy. Sometimes they arouse an interest in some- 
thing we should not otherwise care for by investing 
the subject with the glamour of art. It was the pecu- 
liar charm of the seventeenth-century Dutch school 
to interpret homely domestic themes. These painters 
were wonderful realists and clever story-tellers, with 
good dramatic sense and much humor. Their pic- 
tures suggest to the quick imagination endless stories 
of everyday life — the goldsmith weighing his gold, 
the old market-woman haggling over her fruit and 
vegetables, the lady at her piano, or the cavaHer with 
his lute. We look into the parlor, the kitchen, the 
chamber, the banquet-hall, the tailor's shop, the 
market, and the inn, and imagine all sorts of pleasant 
things about the occupants. With Gerard Dow and 
Maes we see touching scenes among the poor, the ohi 



122 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

woman saying grace over her frugal meal, or working 
at her spinning-wheel. With Terburg we get a 
glimpse of fashionable life, peeping into the homes of 
the wealthy, where slender ladies, in satin gowns, are 
completing their toilets, playing on musical instru- 
ments, or engaged in polite conversation. A French 
genre painter of the eighteenth century, whose do- 
mestic subjects are closely akin to those of the Dutch 
school, was Chardin. There is, however, a delicacy 
and sentiment about his work which distinguishes it 
from the Dutch. Even his cooks and housekeepers, 
with their coquettish frilled caps, have a vein of the 
poetic in their make-up. 

It is because the occupations of daily life appeal so 
strongly to children that Millet is a great favorite 
with them. They are much interested in the simple 
French peasant-folk pursuing their common tasks in 
the house and field. The sense of strength and effi- 
ciency in these figures is an important element in their 
attractiveness, and there is usually a placid content in 
labor which is good to see. They take their tasks seri- 
ously, almost solemnly sometimes, as if performing a 
religious rite. The Potato Planters (man and woman) , 
the Sheep-shearer, the Sower, and the Gleaners illus- 
trate these qualities. The Angelus, the best-known, 
but by no means the greatest, of Millet's works, rep- 
resents a man and woman in the field at the close of 
the day's labor, bowing in prayer at the sound of the 
Angelus bell. When the laborers lack facial beauty, 
their pose is as majestic as Greek sculpture. The Man 
with the Hoe, notwithstanding his stupid vacant 



a 



STORY PICTURES 123 

expression, has a monumental dignity and the plain- 
faced Milkmaid is as graceful as a caryatid. The 
Churner's beauty is in her vigorous handling of the 
dasher, and her satisfaction in the results of her work. 
Even the cat who rubs up against her feels the cheer- 
ful atmosphere of content which pervades the room. 
The Little Shepherdess and the Woman Feeding liens 
are really pretty and are the children's special favor- 
ites. A wide horizon and a long vista are other fea- 
tures of Millet's pictures which make them restful 
and uplifting. One does not weary of such subjects.^ 
Jules Breton is another French painter of peasant 
labor whom the children love. The Song of the Lark 
is a picture of a young woman at work in the field, 
pausing scythe in hand to listen to the wondrous bird 
at which she gazes transfixed. As in Millet's Angelus 
there is here a suggestion of the idealism w^hich light- 
ens toil. Companion figures to the girl of the Lark 
Song is the Gleaner, w^ith a sheaf of wheat on her 
shoulder, and the Shepherd's Star, who carries a big 
bundle on her head. Other subjects relate to the close 
of the day's labor, like the End of Labor, and the 
Close of Day, and the Return of the Gleaners. It will 
be noticed that not one of these subjects shows the 
actual process of labor as in Millet's works. Some 
other French pictures to include in this group have to 
do with haymaking. In Bastien-Lepage's Haymaker 
a w^oman sits in the foreground at rest, with a man 
stretched full length behind her. Dupre's Before the 

1 All the pictures here referred to are illustrations in the volume 
on Millet in the Riverside Art Series. 



124 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Storm shows the haymakers hastening to load the 
wagon under a cloudy sky. Adan's End of Day shows 
a solitary haymaker tramping across the field, and 
in L'Hermitte's La Famille the entire family group 
sits in the hayfield in which the father is at work. 
With this class of pictures belongs Ridgway Knight's 
Calling the Ferry, a representation of French country 
life which shows the splendid physical development 
of the women who live and work out of doors. 

Horatio ^Yalker is an American painter whose 
works are naturally compared with those of Millet as 
interpretations of farm labors. Such subjects as 
ploughing, wood-cutting, ice-cutting, feeding sheep, 
pigs, and turkeys have been treated very vigorously. 
These pictures are mostly in private collections, but a 
few are available as reproductions. For the most part 
we must go to the art of distant lands to show our 
children the primitive tasks of life. In our own coun- 
try the use of modern machinery and the life of the 
factories have for the time being removed the sub- 
jects of labor from the field of art. It is for the artists 
of the future to interpret American industrial life in 
its modern form. 

The story of the whaling industry, now rapidly 
becoming a thing of the past, was the special subject 
of the American painter, William Bradford, some of 
whose works have been reproduced in prints for 
schoolroom decoration. The Arctic Whaler and 
Homeward Bound are of this class. In more recent 
times Winslow Homer has done more than any other 
artist, perhaps, to show us the lives of the toilers of 



STORY PICTURES 125 

the sea. In the Boston Art Museum are two of his 
famous pictures. In one we see the sailor at the look- 
out calling, "All's well," as the bell behind him 
swings out its measure of the hour. In the Fog Warn- 
ing a fisherman in a dory pulls a strong oar to race 
with the fog which is just rising above the horizon. 
The Gulf Stream in the Metropolitan Museum is in 
a more tragic vein, where a wrecked fishing-boat is 
rolling in the trough of a heavy sea. Another very 
thrilling and more cheerful subject is the Life Line. 
Across the surging waters the rescuer carries his 
human burden, swinging from the cable on which they 
are both drawn to safety. 

Nearly all boys like pictures of ships which suggest 
romantic adventure. Turner's Fighting Temeraire is 
a great historic masterpiece which, rightly read, tells 
a thrilling tale of naval prowess. A stately old battle- 
ship, no longer fit for service, is towed to its last 
anchorage by a steaming little tug. A glorious sky 
gives dignity and distinction to the event, like a 
triumphal funeral march. The frigate Constitution, 
"Old Ironsides," corresponds to the Temeraire in our 
own American history, and this has been painted by 
a contemporary artist, Marshall Johnson, in two 
subjects, one showing the ship in full sail alone, and 
the other showing the victorious frigate in contrast to 
the dismantled Guerriere. A few other sea subjects 
are in our list. 

A fascinating class of story pictures, and one which 
is very conspicuous in the art of the old masters, is 
that dealing with the lives of the saints, heroes, and 



126 HOW TO SHOW PICTUKES TO CHILDREN 

martyrs of Christianity. Here are some thrilling dra- 
matic situations, and incidentally a "moral" which 
is plain enough to need no pointing out. I have pre- 
viously spoken of the group of legends symbolizing 
the triumph of good over evil, the most important 
subjects being St. Michael and St. George. St. 
Margaret is the maiden counterpart of St. George. 
A wicked king had cast her into a dungeon where a 
dragon appeared and devoured her. Whereupon he 
burst open and she stepped forth unharmed and 
radiant, just as we see her in Raphael's charming 
picture in the Louvre. 

The gentle St. Francis, who preached to the birds, 
called all the beasts his brethren, and went about 
doing good, is a character whom children should be 
taught to love. The church at Assisi is full of quaint 
decorations by Giotto and other early Italians illus- 
trating the life of the Saint. Some of these are very 
acceptable to children, but we need not go so far 
afield for the material, since Boutet de Monvel has 
given us the whole story in the series of designs for 
"Everybody's St. Francis." The story of St. Anthony 
of Padua, to whom a vision of the Christ-child was 
vouchsafed, makes a very tender picture which 
touches a child's heart readily. This was a favorite 
subject with Murillo, and in many schools and homes 
prints are to be seen from the Spanish painter's 
works, showing the good man kneeling w^ith the 
precious babe in his arms. St. Christopher wading 
through the stream with the Christ-child on his 
shoulder is another favorite picture subject with the 




Anderson, Finoto. 



SAINT CHRISTOPHER 



4 



I 



THE XE' 



STORY PICTURES 127 

children. They love to hear how the giant buffeted 
with the storm-tossed waters, as his burden grew 
heavier and heavier, till he set the child safely on the 
farther bank and learned that he had been carrying 
the Maker of the world. 

Of St. Cecilia, whose music drew the angels down 
from heaven to listen, of St. Ursula, who voyaged to 
distant shrines with ten thousand maiden attendants, 
and of St. Genevieve, the little French shepherdess 
whose name is revered in Paris, we also have many 
attractive story pictures. 

From legend to allegory is but a step, and allegory 
is very common as a subject of mural decoration in 
public buildings. Such pictures are often very inter- 
esting and suggestive to children if properly ex- 
plained, and possess a certain kind of story quality. 
The works of Puvis de Chavannes in the Boston 
Public Library are particularly appropriate for 
school, as they illustrate various branches of learning. 
The subjects in the Congressional Library, at Wash- 
ington, are widely circulated and extremely popular 
for schoolroom. I refer to these more particularly in 
making recommendations for "The Use of Pictures in 
the Schoolroom." In that chapter, too, are included 
the story pictures which illustrate subjects of chiv- 
alry, classic mythology, and history. 

Of all the world stories none is so important reli- 
giously or educationally as the story of the life of 
Jesus. The subject has been the inspiration of the 
noblest art of past centuries, so that no one can in any 
measure understand the history of painting without 



128 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHH^DREN 

studying this class of pictures. Happily all this 
material is available in many forms of prints illus- 
trating the complete life from the promise of the 
angel to the ascension from Mount Olivet. 

List of Story Pictures 

Stories of child life. 

Murillo. Beggar Boys. Munich. (Two ragged urchins 

seated by ruined wall, eating grapes and melons.) 

Beggar Boys. Munich. (Two boys seated on a 

stone, eating, with dog.) 
Fruit- Venders. (Boy and girl with fruit baskets 

seated on ground counting earnings.) 
Dice-players. Munich. (Two urchins playing dice 
on flat stone. Child and dog watching.) 
Chardin. Grace before Meat. Louvre. (Two little girls at 
table. Mother standing over them directing 
them to give thanks.) 
Jan Steen. Feast of St. Nicholas. Amsterdam. (Dutch 
interior with family group on Christmas Eve, 
the children discovering the gifts in their shoes. 
Boy crjdng to find switch instead of gift. Very 
merry scene.) 
The Cat's Dancing-Lesson. Amsterdam. (Dutch 
interior. Merry group about a table on 
which a boy holds the cat upright on hind 
legs. A girl plays accompaniment on flute and 
dog barks. Homely, simple amusement.) 
Christening Feast. (Dutch interior, with many 
figures. Baby in cradle at left; little boy and 
girl dancing at right.) 
Millet. Feeding her Birds. (Doorway of cottage with three 
children seated on sill, fed by mother from bowl.) 
The First Step. (Dooryard. Mother steadying 
baby who tries to toddle toward father kneeling 
at a distance with outstretched arms.) 
Knitting-Lesson. (Old woman teaching tiny girl 
how to manage knitting-needles.) 
Millais. For the Squire. (Little girl in quaint quilted sun- 
bonnet carrying letter.) 



STORY PICTURES U9 

Millais. Princes in Tower. (Illiistrating historical incident 
of murder of sons of Edward IV. Two Ixjys 
clinging together on stairway, hearing ai)proach 
of murderer.) 
Sir Isumbras at the Ford. (A nohlc presentation of 
an aged knight riding a splendid horse, with two 
little children, a girl and a boy, whom he 13 
carrying across the stream.) 
Boyhood of Raleigh. (Two children sitting near 
the beach, one, the boy Raleigh, listening to the 
tales of a tramp sailor who points across the sea.) 
Israels. Little Brother. (At the seashore. Boy wading 
ashore carrying small child pickaback.) 
Interior of a cottage. (Mother sitting by cradle 

watching baby.) 
Little seamstress. (Little girl sewing.) 
Boy sailing a boat. 
Blommers. Little Shrimp Fishermen. (Group of children in 

shallow water dragging for fish.) 
Curran. Children catching minnows. 

Meyer von Bremen. Little Brother. (Cottage interior. 

Mother standing with young babe 

in her arms stooping to show him to 

children.) 

The Pet Bird. (Swiss interior. Four 

children gathered about table on 

which is open cage. Bird perched 

on boy's finger.) 

Renouf. The Helping Hand. (Open boat with old sailor at 

oars, a little girl putting her hand over his to help.) 

Leighton. The Music-Lesson. (Young mother and daughter 

seated side by side playing lute.) 
T. C. Gotch. Pageant of Childhood. Liverpool Museum. 
(Procession of boys and girls in costume, 
marching by twos, graded in size.) 
T. Couture. Day-Dreams. Metropolitan Museum. (Boy 
seated at table, leaning back in reverie, 
holding pipe from which he has been blowing 
bubbles.) 
P. A. Cot. Paul and Virginia (also called the "^torm"). 
Metropolitan Museum. (Illustrating the 
story by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Youth 
and maiden fleeing before the storm.) 



130 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CmLDREN 

Kever. Sewing-School. (Two rows of little girls in chairs out- 
side cottage, bending assiduously to their sewing 
tasks.) 
Kaulbach. The Pied Piper. Illustration of Browning's 
poem. (Courtyard with flight of stone steps up 
which a crowd of merry children are' rushing in 
pursuit of the piper.) 
Elizabeth Gardner. Two Mothers. (Young mother and 

child, hen and chicks.) 
Three Friends. (Two little girls and 
calf.) 
Peter de Hooch. Interior, Metropolitan Museum. (Little 

girl bringing jug into house from outer 
door. Mother seated within. Dog.) 
Storeroom. Amsterdam. (Little girl and 

mother.) 
Courtyard. National Gallery, London. 
(Mother and little girl hand in hand.) 
Plockhorst. Christ Blessing Little Children. (The Saviour 
seated with group of children pressing about 
him.) 
Titian. Tobias and the Angel. S. Marziale, Venice. (Illus- 
trating story in Apocrypha. Boy led by angel and 
accompanied by dog. Cliild carries fish for his 
father.) 
Presentation of Virgin in Temple. Venice Academy. 
(Child Mary walking up long flight of Temple 
steps, at top of which High Priest is standing. 
Many spectators.) 
Tintoretto. Presentation of Virgin in Temple. S. Maria 
deir Orto, Venice. Same subject as above in 
different composition. 

Miscellaneous story subjects of home and outdoor life. 

Gerard Dou. Poulterer's Shop. National Gallery, London. 
(Young lady bargaining with market- 
woman for hare.) 
Spinner's Dream. Munich. (Old woman say- 
ing grace at meal.) 
Maes. Old woman spinning. Amsterdam. 
Old woman paring apples. Berlin. 
Tcrburg. Lady washing her hands. Dresden Gallery. 



STORY PICTURES 



131 



Terburg. The Concert. Berlin. (Two ladies, at violin and 
'cello.) 
Woman peeling apples. Vienna Gallery. (A pert- 
looking little girl stands behind table, with very 
modern wide-brimmed hat.) 
Vermeer. Woman at Casement. Metropolitan Museum. 
Woman pouring milk from jug. Amsterdam. 
Lacemaker. Louvre. 
Chardin. The Cook. Lichtenstein Gallery, Vienna. (Young 
woman seated, with vegetables on floor and in 
dish beside her.) 
The Housekeeper, or "Home from the Market." 
Louvre. (Young woman leaning against 
heaped-up serving-table, and carrying a large 
sack of provisions.) 
Millet. Potato-Planters. 
Woman churning. 
Sheep-Shearer. 
The Sower. 
The Gleaners. 
The Angelus. 
The Shepherdess. 
Woman feeding Hens. 
Going to Work. 
Breton. Song of the Lark. Chicago Art Institute. 
The Gleaner. Luxembourg, Paris. 
The Return of the Gleaners. Luxembourg. (Full 
of life and action.) 
Horatio Walker. Spring Ploughing. 

The Woodcutters. St. Louis Art Museum. 
Bastien-Lepage. Haymakers. 
Dupre. Before the Storm. 
Adan. End of Day. 

L'Hermitte. LaFamille. Buffalo. (Hay field, father at work, 
mother and babe, little girl and grandmother 
seated on ground.) 
Ridgway Knight. Calling the Ferry. 



Sea Subjects. 

William Bradford. 

Winslow Homer. 



Arctic Whaler. 
Homeward Bound. 
Lookout. Boston Art Museum. 



132 HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN 

Winslow Homer. Fog Warning. Boston Art Museum. 

Gulf Stream. Metropolitan Museum. 
Life Line. 
^ Turner. The Fighting Temeraire. National Gallery, Lon- 
don. 
Marshall Johnson. The Constitution. 

The Constitution and Guerriere. 
Mauve. By the Sea. (Hull of a dismantled ship drawn on 

the shore by horses.) 
Sadee. Portion of the Poor. (Women and children in shal- 
low water picking up small fish cast away from 
the newly arrived fishing- vessel near by.) 

Illustrations of legends. 

Raphael. St. George and the Dragon. National Gallery, 

London. 
Tintoretto. St. George and the Dragon. National Gallery, 

London. 
Carpaccio. St. George and the Dragon. Church of S. 

Giorgio, Venice. 
Raphael. St. Margaret and the Dragon. Louvre, Paris. 
Raphael. St. Michael and the Dragon. Louvre, Paris. 
Guido Reni. St. Michael and the Dragon. Church of 

Cappuccini, Rome. 
Van Dyck. St. Martin dividing his cloak with a beggar. 
(Illustration in Van Dycky Riverside Art 
Series.) 
Murillo. Vision of St. Anthony. Berlin Gallery. 

Vision of St. Anthony. Seville Cathedral. 
Vision of St. Anthony. St. Petersburg. 
Van Dyck. Vision of St. Anthony. (Illustration in Van 

Dyck, Riverside Art Series.) 
Titian. St. Christopher. Doge's Palace, Venice. 
Raphael. St. Cecilia. Bologna Gallery. 
Carpaccio. Story of St. Ursula in series of paintings in Venice 
Academy. Special favorite: The Dream of St. 
Ursula. 
Puvis de Chavannes and others. Life of St. Genevieve, in 
decorations of the Pantheon, Paris. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

LISTS OF BOOKS FOR A WORKING LIBRARY IN 

ART STUDY 

Note: A collection of books for art study should contain: (1) 
a general handbook of the art of every country; (2) separate 
monographs devoted to the work of those individual artists 
selected for study. 

Both classes of books are of two kinds: (1) the brief outline 
which simplifies and popularizes the subject, (2) the exhaustive 
special treatise, representing a study of original sources. 

The following two lists are made up with these distinctions 
in mind. 

List I — For General Readers 

GENERAL HISTORIES 

Mrs. Jameson. Early Italian Painters. Revised and in part 
rewritten by Estelle M. Hurll. 

H. H. Powers. Mornings with the Masters. 

Symonds. Renaissance in Italy. Volume on the Fine Arts. 

Julia Cartwright. The Painters of Florence. 

Sir Walter Armstrong. Art in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Sir Gaston Maspero. Art in Egypt. 

Louis Hourticq. Art in France. 

Comm. Ricci. Art in Northern Italy. 

Marcel Dieulafoy. Art in Spain and Portugal. 

Max Rooses. Art in Flanders. 

The last seven books are issued in the "General His- 
tory of Art" series. 

Eugene Fromentin. Old Masters of Belgium and Holland. 
Translated by Mary C. Robbins. 

Charles H. CaflSn. Story of Spanish Painting. 

Charles H. Caflfin. Story of French Painting. 



136 APPENDIX 

John La Farge. The Higher Life in Art. (Treating the 

French painters of Barbizon school.) 
Charles H. Caffin. Story of Dutch Painting. 
Charles H. Caffin. Story of American Painting. 
Isham. History of American Painting. 
G. H. Marius. Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth Century. 

Translated by Alexander de Matteo. 

POPULAR ILLUSTRATED BOOKS 

John La Farge. Hundred Masterpieces. 

Esther Singleton's compilations: Great PictureSy and 
Famous Paintings. 

Charles Barstow. Famous Pictures. 

Henry T. Bailey. Twelve Great Paintings. 

The Children's Booh of Arty by Agnes Ethel Conway and 
Sir Martin Conway. London, 1909. (The selections are 
chiefly from the National Gallery and from private col- 
lections in England.) 

BOOKS ON SEPARATE ARTISTS 

Series: The Great Masters in Painting and Sculpture. 
Edited by G. C. Williamson.^ (Short biographical and 
critical monographs by reliable critics, carefully worked 
out, and made especially valuable by complete descrip- 
tive lists of the artists' works. Well illustrated.) 

Riverside Art Series. By Estelle M. Hurll. Twelve 
volumes. (Each volume contains sixteen selected illus- 
trations of an individual artist with simple descriptive 
commentary, A biographical outline and an essay sum- 
ming up the artist's character and place in art history 
are special features.) 

List II — For Serious Students 

GENERAL HISTORIES . 

Vasari. Lives of the Painters (Italian). In four volumes. 

Edited by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield and A. A. Hopkins. 

The original source of all our information about the 



APPENDIX 137 

old Italian masters. Brought up to date with corrections 

and valuable critical commentary. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. History of Painting in Italy. 

Edited by Edward Hutton. In three vohnnes. 
Kugler. Handbook of the Italian Schools. Revised by A. H. 

Layard. In two volumes. 
Sir William Stirling-Maxwell. Annals of the Artists of 

Spain. 
Kugler. Handbook of the Germany Flemish^ and Dutch 

Schools. Revised by J. A. Crowe. In two volumes. 
Clara Cornelia Stranahan. History of French Painting. 
W. C. Brownell. French Art. 
Allan Cunningham. Lives of the Most Eminent British 

Painters. Revised by Mrs. Charles Heaton. 

BOOKS ON SEPARATE ARTISTS 

Symonds. Michelangelo Buonarotti. 

Eugene Miintz. Leonardo da Vinci. 

Eugene Muntz. Raphael. 

Corrado Ricci. Correggio. 

Claude Phillips. Titian. 

Charles B. Curtis. Velasquez and Murillo. 

Carl Justi. Velasquez. 

R. A. M. Stevenson. Velasquez. (In series, "Great Mas- 
ters of Painting and Sculpture." Very original and 
remarkable.) 

Lionel Cust. Albert Durer, A Study of His Life and Work. 

Emile Michel. Rembrandt; His Life^ His Work, His Time. 
Translated by Florence Simmonds. 

Gerald Stanley Davies. Frans Hals. 

Emile Michel. Rubens; His Life, His Work, His Time. 

Lionel Cust. Van Dyck. 

Sir Walter Armstrong. Reynolds. 

Thomas Humphrey and William Roberts. Romney. 

Sir Walter Armstrong. Gainsborough. 

Julia Cartwright. Millet. 

Rene Peyrol. Rosa Bonheur. 

John Guille Millais. Sir John Millais'^s Life and Letters. 



138 APPENDIX 

Malcolm Bell. Bume-Jones: A Record and a Review. 
Emilie Isabel Barrington. Sir Frederick Leighton: The Life, 

Letters, and Work. 
Mary S. Watts. George Frederick Waits. The Annals of an 

Artist's Life. His Writings. 



^Cj, 



FLEMING 



I 



America's own lasroRic ornament 



Next we tried designing booklets. 
Again the subject was the Indians, their 
life and habits. The materials needed 
were a piece of cover paper, pieces of 
plain drawing paper (about 11" x 8" 
doubled), pencils, rulers, and afterwards, 
paints. The text was to be lettered 
rather than written in script. The 
cover had to be designed with title and 
ornament, the title page inside with 
pupil's name, a decorative initial letter, 
the first and succeeding pages with 
appropriate margins, borders, and other 
decorations, and illustrations if desired. 
What splendid problems the pupils 
found in the booklet! — how to fit 
spaceS; how to balance effects, where to 
put ornament, how to harmonize colors. 
The booklets were completed in about 
four half-hour lessons. The work was 
very interesting, and the results were 
gratifying. The productions were all 
different, each had its individuality, 
each was a real creation on the part of 
the pupil. Two of the covers are shown 
in Plate III. 

The other senior classes of the Model 
School, and the classes of the teachers- 
in-training likewise copied and suit- 
ably applied the Indian ornament. 

Then we ceased our Indian art work 
for the year; but the effects of its study 
did not cease. Since then Indian forms 



have been discovered in unsuspected 
places and used for decoration in a 
variety of ways. One boy who had 
some Indian mementos on hand utilized 
them in designing a den of Indian char- 
acter, adding here and there some of the 
designs learned in school. Then, too, 
our efficient gardener took note of the 
circular porcupine quill design of the 
Eastern Woodlands, in colored chalks 
on the art-room bhekboard. He said, 
"What a beautiful flower-bed that 
would make, about sixteen feet in diam- 
eter; for the blue I could use the lobelia, 
for the purple the foliage leaf plant, 
etc. " He has planned to' set out the 
bed for next spring. We feel that we have 
some appreciable success in beginning 
what is here a new phase of art work — 
the use of our American aboriginal art. 

And what we have done can be ac- 
complished and excelled by other 
schools who have collections of Indian 
art available, or faili:ig that, books on 
anthropology with a plentiful supply of 
illustrations, such as many of the vol- 
umes published by the Smithsonian 
Institute of Washington, D. C. The 
other requirements are, on the part of 
the teacher — some considerable enthu- 
siasm, and the ability to lead. 

Let us not overlook the plant which 
grows at our owni doorstep. 




Beautiful Pictures to Enjoy 

Mrs. Estelle M. Hurll 

Note: The aim oj Siis department is to promote the appreciation of art by practical helps in the 
Hudy of pictures. Reaaprs are cordially invited to co-operate in the work by making suggestions, 
asking questions and seizing in answers to the Questions for Discussion. Address all correspondence 
to Picture Department, School Arts Magazine, 120 Boylston St., Boston. 

iJandscape as a setting for animal life 

Watering Place at Treport, by Emil van Marcke 




Mm. Efltelle M. Hurl 



FROM the his- 
tory of paint- 
ing we learn that 
landscape pic- 
tures came very 
late in the 
process of art 
development. 
Figure painting 
had reached per- 
fection long be- 
fore natural 



scenery was re- 
presented for its (jwn sake. Previous 
to the 17th centjry it was merely 
as a background for figures that painters 
made any attempt^ to reproduce trees 
and grass, mountaitis, rocks and rivers. 
Gradually a sense of the beauty of 
nature awoke and in the course of time 
pure landscape art came into its own. 
Now history repeats itself in the life 
of each one of us. Of course the first 
objects which a child identifies are the 
human beings about him, his toys and 
the various houselxDld articles— not far- 

tr^&s and clouds. All 
his first pictures, therefore are represen- 
tations of these faiiiliar objects, and it 
18 some time befoie landscapes appeal 
to him At just w lat age I should not 



dare to say, for I get a variety of an- 
swers whenever I ask parents and 
teachers this question. Much depends 
upon the taste of the older people who 
influence him and the customs of the 
family. Among the people who love 
camping and out of door life, who teach 
their children the joys of woodcraft 
and gardening, boys and girls readily 
"take'' to nature pictures. Among 
certain city folk of limited interests 
whose chief amusements are theatres 
and movies, children show but languid 
interest in landscape art. The fact 
is that young people (as well as the 
rest of us) like in pictures pretty much 
the same things they like in their daily 
fife. 

In the school picture work children 
may be led to the true appreciation of 
landscape by precisely the same steps 
which marked the historical evolution 
of the art. Suppose we take in order 
these three classes of pictures: First, 
figure-landscape, in which the figures 
predominate. Second, landscape witt 
figures, in which figures are suborcl 
nate. Third, pure landscape without 
figures. This sequence is both logical 
and psychological, and I think it is 
worth while for the teacher to follow it 

558 



HURLL 



BEAUTIFUL PICTURES TO ENJOY 



as far as is practicable. Landscape 
with figures predominating are of many 
kinds. Some which especially interest 
the children of lower grade are those 
dealing wath all sorts of outdoor labor. 
Certain French painters are great popu- 
lar favorites in this line of subjects. 
Pictures like Millet's Potato Planters, 
The Shepherdess, and the Gleaners, 
or like Breton's Lark and Shepherds' 
Star, we often used in the schools, but 
not always, I suspect, with as much 
attention to the setting as would be 
desirable. Another sub-division of this 
figure-landscape art is the outdoor 
animal picture. Now many good ani- 
nal painters like Landseer and Rosa 
Bonheur, are rather indifferent land- 
■>capists. When we are spe(ially en- 
gaged in training the eye in landscape 
study, we prefer the works of Troyon 
md van Marcke, who understood how 
to make the scenery a beautiful and 
harmonious environment for cattle. 

A typical example by van Marcke is 
the subject called A Watering Place at 
Treport. It is very similar in compo- 
sition to a picture in the Albright 
collection at Buffalo, which may be 
familiar to many readers. Though 
we are looking here at French coun- 
try life, the general aspect of the 
scene seems perfectly familiar to Amer- 
ican eyes. With either picture we 
begin by examining carefully the fine, 
well-fed creatures in the foreground. 
In primary grades — if indeed such a 
'picture should appear there — this is 
ibout as far as we should get, merely 
ising the subject as a nature study and 
emphasizing the mild and gentle aspect 
of the cows. Investigating more fully ,we 
ask, — How many are there in the main 



group? Where are they standing? Is 
the water a river? a pond? a brook? 
Does there seem to be any current, or 
is it still water? Is it shallow or deep? 
That it is both still and shallow we 
know from the growth of reeds and 
grasses. The depth can also be judged 
by the portion of the cows' legs under 
water. Here is evidently a marshy 
meadowland with occasional pools. 

Note the variety in color and marking 
of the cattle, getting a descriptive phrase 
for each one. Is one more prominent 
than the other, and if so, is the promi- 
nence due to size, beauty, light, posi- 
tion or action? Manifestly, the glori- 
ous white cow wUch is the ''feature" 
of the composition, has all these essen- 
tials of prominence. Describing the 
atjtion of each one, point out in proper 
sequence: the animal approaching, the 
one pausing, the one drinking, and the 
one which, having had her fill, turns 
away and looks across the country. 
Thus does the arti^ give us the whole 
story. How have the cows been led 
here? By a lad on horseback who has 
ridden his horse into the water for a 
drink. 

With pupils mature enough for some 
sort of compositional analysis we ask 
how is the space in the background 
divided? Into two sections — woods on 
the left and open sky on the right, mak- 
ing a fine contrast of light and dark. 

in the center softens 
ilow far do you think 



A detached tree 
the transition, 



horizon? An ca 
What objects ari 



it is from the p)ol to the hill on the 



y walk or a long one? 
in between by which 
you may realize the distance? Note 
how cleverly the distant cows are placed 
in line with tie animals in front, so to 



559 



BEAUTIFUL PICTURES tO ENJOY 



HURLL 



lead the eye to the horizon. Do you 
not like to stand ou^i of doors where 
you can look far awav across the 
country? 



away 



little in the shade and finally lie down 
on a grass}^ bank and fall asleep. And 
how deliciously cool the water must be, 
both to wade in and to drink! All 




J 



WATERING PMCE AT TREPORT. FROM A PAINTING BY EMIL VAN MARCKE. 



It is noontime of a Midsummer day, 
hot and dry — all this' the trained eye 
takes in at a single glance, but how can 
we teach our pupils to prove it? First 
of all, the shadows show us that the sun 
is high — the light shiring on the backs 
of the animals and accentuating the 
massive structure of the bodies. The 
thick foliage and the almost cloudless 
sky show us the season. It is in con- 
trast to the sky and :he broad, sunny 
raeadowB that the woods look so invit- 
mg. We can imagine just how delight- 
ful it would be to stroll through that 
opening in the fence, wander about a 



these effects we could get more vividly 
from the colors of the original painting, 
but it is wonderful how well even the 
black and white reproduction conveys 
the sense of atmosphere and summer- 
iness in the picture. 

It is pleasant to draw out the chil- 
dren to tell of their country experiences, 
keeping their reminiscences as closely 
as possible and emphasizing the sense 
of exhilaration which a wide outlook 
gives. Let them tr^- to imagine what 
a change would be made if the same 
group of cattle were represented in a 
small and rather shut in space. 

560 



HURLL 



BEAUTIFT,, PICTURES TO ENJOY 



Maturer pupils will readily see the 
superiority of van Marcke's landscape 
art if they compare this picture with 
outdoor animal subjects by other paint- 
ers. 

Books of Reference 

MicheVs Great Masters of Landscape 
Painting (translated from the French) 
is a large authoritative work covering 
the entire subject from the rise of the 
art to the present day, w4th an account 
of the important painters in every 
country who have contributed to its 
development. A brief paragraph is 
devoted to Emil van Marcke (1827- 
1890), who was a pupil of Troyon, and 
whose landscapes, says the author, 
'* harmonized very well" with the ani- 
mals he painted. 

Witt's How to Look at Pictures con- 
tains an excellent chapter on Land- 
scape, which briefly outlines the his- 
torical development of the art, ending 
with a few suggestions as to the study 
of landscape composition. 

Miss Emery's How to Enjoy Pictures 
contains in the chapter on Animals a 
delightful study of a picture by Troyon 
similar to this work b> van Marcke. 



The same book h ~ an excellent chapter 
on Landscapes. 

Information ..bOLf Our Illustra- 
tions. If any - aders wish to know 
where the photc for the various 

illustrations were obtained, I shall be 
glad to furnish the information to 
those who sen( stamped addressed 
envelopes for re, y. 

About Our Q FiSTioNs for Discus- 
sion. I must « iiain to my readers 
that I was oblip I to get some of my 
landscape matori: ready for the maga- 
zine before answrs had been received 
to the questions n this subject in the 
January number. The exigencies of the 

require an extreme 
on the part of the 
me therefore beg 
you to send in ai.swers at the earliest 
possible momen after reading each 

.■X sooner or later 
y,i\\ be duly recog- 
nized and acted i. ton in these columns. 
This month I wi I ask only these two 
questions: (1) ('it of ten pictures for 
the school year, low many would be 
landscape subje< '' (2) Do children 
prefer familiar c loreign landscapes? 



magazine busino- 
"forehandednc- 
contributors. L»i 



number. Be su: 
all corresponden' 




561 



■ ■ 



"7^ 



r 



■ ■ 



Good Ideas from Everywhere 



Jy 



K.J<3 



TO OUR READERS 

at hand. Topics called 
schoolroom, original work 
the course of study you 
mark, we will endeavor to 
must have your request fm 
appear on time. We 
like to see treated in this 
that we can use. — The EiiroRS 



muH 



-.■—This Department aims to present each month the most helpful suggestions 

in good courses of studies, projects that have proven their valu^ in the 

)/ children, are here illustrated and described. If you will send to our office 

with topics that you would like to see illustrated indicated hy a check 

take them up in order in this department. But please remember that we 

kelp at least three months in advance of publication, that our answer may 

know before May 1st, for example, about any October topic you would 

Jtpartment . We welcome Good Ideas, and will pay for original material 



QUOTATIONS FOR USE IN APRIL 

SELECTED BY ABBY P. CHURCHILL 



The wild and windy March once more 

Has shut her gates of sleet. 
And given us back the u'^^pril time 

So fickle and so sweejt 

Alice Gary. 

proud-pied Ap'U, dressed in all his 
trim, 
Hath put a spirit of you:.h in everything. 

Shakespeare. 

Bees are h laiming, 
April's here, and suiimer's coming. 

Jean Ingelow. 
April is here! 

Bhthest season of all the year. 
The httle brook laughs a^ it leaps away; 
The lambs are out on the biills at play; 
The warm south -wind sins;s, the whole day long, 
The merriest kind of a wwdless so^%. 
Gladness is born of the April weather, 
And the heart is as ligU as a winr^-co^is 

feather. 
Who could be sad on a dk^ like this? 
The Care that vexed us nb longer is. 
If we sit down at the grekl tree's feet 
We feel the pulses of Natnre beat. 
There's an upward impute» in everything. 
Look up and be glad, is tpj law of Spring. 

U E. E. Rexfoid. 

A gush of bird-song, a pitter of dew, 
A cloud, and a rainbov's warning, 

Suddenly sunshine and perfect blue, — 
An April day in the norning. 

Harrie Prescott Spojford. 



April cold with dropping rain 
Willows and hlacs bring again, 
The whistle of returning birds, 
And trumpet-lowing of the herds. 

Emerson. 

The year's at the sprmg, 

And day's at the mom; 

Morning's at seven; 

The hillside's dew-pearled; 

The lark's on the wing; 

The snail's on the thorn; 

God's in His heaven, — 

All's right with the world, 

Robert Browning. 

Coy April comes, her fair face wreathed in 
smiles. 

Glinton Scollard. 

Wtyh eyes all tender and blushes shy, 
April smiles with a tear-wet face. 

A. B. Houghton. 

The April v&" Ij are magical 
And thriU our tuneful frames. 

Emerson, 

April's in the sunny lane; 
Bless her! she is come again, 
Hanging, on the spiky thorn, 
Lamps to Ught the early morn. 



Here in dainty azure see, 
As in merr>' mockery 
Of the soft cerulean dome, 
Blue-eyed hyacinth at home. 

Edward Capem. 

562 



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AUG 5 - 1938 



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